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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you think the business legislation PSAT is a working thesis, just a practice test, then you're missing a key part of the story. The Preliminary SAT / National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test, more commonly known as the PSAT/NMSQT or just the PSAT, is dissertation, also essential in white tropics discourse essays the competition for National Merit distinction and scholarships. Plus, it can help you figure out dissertation business legislation, exactly how to study for the SAT. This guide's dedicated to the PSAT/NMSQT, from its overall structure to english language assignment how it’s scored to what kind of questions show up in each section.
Before putting the test under the microscope, let’s go over the purpose of this test. What is the PSAT NMSQT for, anyway? What’s the Purpose of the PSAT/NMSQT? The PSAT/NMSQT, which I’ll sometimes just refer to dissertation business legislation as the PSAT so I don’t have to keep typing out all those letters, is supplement essay, automatically administered to most high school juniors. If you attend one of the many participating high schools, then you’ll be taking the PSAT one October school day in 11th grade. Dissertation Business Legislation. Unlike the university supplement essay 2 SAT, the PSAT NMSQT test dates are predetermined; in dissertation legislation 2016, schools are encouraged to give it on how to write a working thesis October 19. Younger students can also elect to take it as practice, but they’ll have to make a registration request to their school counselor. College Board has recently offered other versions of the PSAT, the PSAT 8/9 and the PSAT 10, for younger students, as well. Depending on your grade level and academic readiness, you can decide which test, if any, would be most useful for you to take before junior year.
Whenever you take the PSAT NMSQT, you’ll find that it’s useful practice for the SAT. The two tests are extremely similar; the dissertation main difference is that the PSAT doesn’t have an optional essay section. They’re even scored on a similar scale, with PSAT/NMSQT scores shifted down 80 points to account for the fact that it’s a slightly easier test. Your PSAT score report will give you detailed feedback on your performance with a bunch of section scores and research, subscores. Business Legislation. You can use this feedback to direct your studying for the SAT. The PSAT’s other main purpose is to qualify for National Merit distinction and scholarships. Jealousy Essay. Only 11th graders with PSAT NMSQT qualifying scores are eligible.
Students who score in the top 3-4% are named Commended Students while those who score in the top 1% are named Semifinalists. The majority of these Semifinalists, about legislation 15,000 out of 16,000 students, are then invited to apply to become Finalists, also called National Merit Scholars. White Tropics. Finalists may receive scholarship money from the National Merit Scholarship Corporation or a participating college. If you’re looking to dissertation business achieve top scores on the PSAT and ultimately earn scholarship money, then the PSAT/NMSQT becomes a very important test on discourse your road to business college. Even if you’re not, the PSAT is language coursework assignment, still highly useful as practice for the SAT.
Now that you have a sense of dissertation when and how to write research paper, why students take the PSAT/NMSQT, let’s examine the test itself, starting with its overall structure. The PSAT/NMSQT is almost identical twins with the SAT. It just has a few key differences and slightly easier questions overall. The PSAT NMSQT is a time intensive test, clocking in at 2 hours and 45 minutes. It has four sections: Reading, Writing and Language, Math No Calculator, and Math with Calculator. The names and order of these sections match that of the dissertation legislation SAT. The only difference, as mentioned above, is that the genetics PSAT doesn’t offer an dissertation optional essay section. The chart below shows the order and length of the english language assignment 3 sections, along with the number of questions in each and dissertation legislation, approximate time per question.
You’ll get a five-minute break after about each hour of essay on mercy testing. There will be a break after Reading and a break after Math No Calculator. Before checking out the content of each section, let’s go over dissertation business how the PSAT is scored. Your PSAT score report will break down your performance with a bunch of different score types. Igcse. One of the most important is your total score, which will fall between 320 and 1520. This total score represents the sum of two section scores, one for Evidence-based Reading and dissertation business, Writing and one for thesis for a Math. Notice that certain test sections are combined to bring you two section scores, rather than four. These two section scores range between 160 and dissertation business legislation, 760. In addition to these section scores, you’ll get three “test scores” that tell you how you did on the Reading, Writing and Language, and Math sections. Essentially, these test scores separate out the Reading and Writing and white tropics, Language sections so you can see how you did on each individually.
These test scores will range from 8 to 38. Test scores are also important for the PSAT NMSQT Selection Index, which is another scoring scale that the National Merit Scholarship Corporation uses to determine who makes Semifinalist. If these score types weren’t enough, you’ll also get “cross-test scores” and business legislation, “subscores” between 1 and 15 that tell you how you did in certain skill areas. All of this detailed feedback can actually be really useful in telling you how to prep for the SAT. Write A Working Thesis For A Paper. You can even calculate all these score types yourself on PSAT/NMSQT practice tests and use them to figure out your strengths and weaknesses as a test-taker. Finally, it’s important to note that the PSAT/NMSQT uses rights-only scoring.
You’ll get one point for every correct answer, and no points for wrong or skipped answers. There aren’t any point deductions as there were in past years, so it’s in your best interest to answer every question. Now that you know how the PSAT NMSQT is structured and scored, your next step is to learn about the content and skills tested in each section. Let’s start with Reading. Rights-only scoring means you might as well roll the dice and business, give every question your best guess!
PSAT Reading: Structure, Skills, and Study Tips. The Reading section on the PSAT is all about essays reading comprehension. You’ll read passages and answer questions about their meaning. To cover every nook and business, cranny of this section, let’s start by essay on mercy reviewing its structure, then take a look at some sample questions, and finally go over some of the best PSAT/NMSQT approaches to legislation studying. Every question on genetics essay prompts the Reading section of the PSAT is dissertation, multiple choice and based on a passage or a set of paired passages. Jealousy Essay. You’ll get one passage from US and World Literature, two from dissertation History/Social Studies, and two from jealousy essay Science, for a total of dissertation business legislation five passages. One or more passages may accompany a graphic, like a graph or chart.
The chart below further describes the passage types you’ll encounter on the SAT, along with an estimate of 2 how many questions you’ll answer about each type. You’ll get a total of 47 questions in the Reading section. Read on to learn what these questions will ask. PSAT Reading: Skills and Sample Questions. The reading section asks you to read passages from business a variety of genres, including prose, argument, and essay on mercy petition, nonfiction narrative , and comprehend their meaning. You might be asked about the meaning of the business passage or a paragraph as a whole, a particular sentence or detail, or even just a vocabulary word or phrase. By analyzing the test, we’ve picked out eight main question types: big picture/main, little picture/detail, inference, vocabulary in context, function, author technique, evidence support, and data interpretation. To give you an idea of what these look like, here are some representative sample problems of each question type. For the how to write a working research complete test, check out College Board's official PSAT practice test. 1. Big Picture/Main Point: These questions ask about the main purpose of a passage. 2. Little Picture/Detail: These questions refer you to one or more specific lines within a passage and ask you to interpret their meaning.
3. Inference: These questions ask you to make some sort of reasonable inference from a line or paragraph. 4. Vocabulary in Context: These questions ask about the meaning of a word or phrase. 5. Dissertation. Function: These questions ask what one or more lines accomplish within the passage. Why did the author choose to include them? 6. Author Technique: These questions often ask about an author's style, tone, or some other technique.
7. Evidence Support: These questions tend to refer back to a previous question. They ask for the reason behind your last answer. 8. Genetics Essay Prompts. Data Interpretation: These questions ask you to read the data in business a graph or chart. They often ask about the relationship between the graphic and the passage. Again, the above are not official categories, but rather based on university of michigan essay 2 our analysis of official PSAT/NMSQT tests. As for business the official categories that College Board defines, there are four: Command of essay 2 Evidence, Words in Context, Analysis in History/Social Studies, and Analysis in Science. The evidence support and function questions you read about above tend to fall into the Command of Evidence area, while questions on vocabulary in context and author technique tend to legislation fall into the Words in Context skill area. Many of the genetics above question types could be considered Analysis in legislation History/Social Studies or Science; they tend to be the ones that follow the history and jealousy essay, science passages . For instance, here’s an example of an Analysis in History/Social Studies question, followed by an Analysis in Science sample question. Analysis in History/Social Studies Sample Question.
Analysis in Science Sample Question. The first example, you might notice, falls into the big picture/main point category mentioned above. The second one is dissertation legislation, more like a little picture/detail question. None of the Reading questions require you to white discourse essays have any pre-existing knowledge on a topic. Instead, all of your answers should be entirely based on information present in a passage. The questions should go in chronological order alongside the passages, so you should be able to dissertation legislation locate information with some efficiency.
To some extent, this section tests the genetics prompts reading skills you’ve accumulated throughout all your years of schooling. However, there are still ways you can prepare to dissertation business legislation do well on the Reading section. On your mark, get set, read! The Reading section is a challenging part of the SAT. A lot of students have the reading comprehension skills to jealousy essay do well on this section, but they still need to prepare specifically for the unique question types and fast-paced nature of the test. Below are a few tips for studying for dissertation legislation the Reading section of the SAT.
One key way to improve your reading comprehension is to read a lot! Make it a point to read works from various genres and pay attention to their main point, tone, and style . Note how certain words and genetics essay prompts, phrases take on different meanings depending on dissertation business context. If you’re reading fiction, consider what the igcse coursework assignment characters do and say to move the plot forward. Dissertation. If you’re reading an argument-based text, take notes on white how the author structures the dissertation piece and uses details to support her point. Taking the time to really engage with a work of literature or nonfiction will allow you to build your reading comprehension skills across genres. While reading in and out of write a working paper class should help you develop your reading skills, you should especially focus on passages from PSAT practice materials. Take timed PSAT/NMSQT practice tests and dissertation business legislation, try out jealousy essay, various reading strategies, like skimming the legislation passage for genetics key points or reading the questions first. Through practice, figure out which strategy works best for you. By scoring your tests and analyzing your results, you can figure out where you most need to improve. You can also learn whether you need to brush up on certain skills or improve your time management.
Taking timed practice tests will gradually turn you into a test-taking rock star. Just as this guide does, make sure your study materials break down each Reading question type so you can recognize exactly what each question is asking you. Business. The data interpretation questions are a relatively new addition. Practice reading graphs and charts to make sure you’re prepared for essay petition these unusual question types. Since the Reading section doesn’t require you to have any preexisting knowledge of dissertation business legislation a topic, make sure that your answers are based completely on a passage. The evidence-based question types are a useful reminder that your interpretations should be entirely based on the information before you.
As you read above, your Reading score will eventually get combined with your Writing and Language score to form one Evidence-based Reading and white essays, Writing score. Legislation. Read on jealousy essay to learn how the two sections are different. Get out your red pen! It's time to proofread some messy papers. Legislation. (Not actually, though. Only No. 2 pencils are allowed on the PSAT.)
PSAT Writing and Language: Structure, Skills, and Study Tips. The Writing and Language section asks you to be an editor. You’ll read some passages that have errors in word choice and problems with organization. Your job is to identify and fix these issues. This section’s technically called Writing and Language, but you’ll probably hear it shortened to Writing. Just like in the Reading section, all of the questions in the Writing section are multiple choice and based on passages.
Another similarity between the jealousy essay two sections is that the sources of the dissertation passages are pre-determined. You’ll get one that has to do with Careers, another with History/Social Studies, a third with Humanities, and the fourth with Science. You’ll answer 11 questions on each passage for a total of 44 questions. As you saw in the Reading section, some of your questions will refer to graphs or charts. How To A Working Thesis Research. In the Writing section, this kind of dissertation legislation data interpretation question may ask you if the passage accurately reflects the graph or where you could add a data point to strengthen a passage’s argument. You won’t find any prose in university supplement essay 2 the Writing and Language section. Dissertation Business. All of the passages will be argument-based, informative, or nonfiction narrative. The chart below describes the passage types in greater detail. So how does the genetics prompts Writing section ask you to edit for grammar, organization, and meaning?
Read on to find out. Writing Section: Skills and Sample Questions. What exactly do I mean when I say the Writing section asks you to be an editor? The questions ask you to edit the passage for legislation meaning and essay, clarity in legislation a few ways. English Language Coursework Assignment 3. They may ask you whether or not a specific word is the best choice in a sentence. Dissertation. They might ask you to reorganize the order of ideas. You might also have to english 3 add or delete a sentence, along with explaining the reason behind your change.
Most questions give you the option of, “No Change,” meaning there might not always be an error. Not only dissertation business, will you have to recognize whether or not there’s an error , but if there is, you’ll have to find the correct or improved revision. According to College Board, 20 of the 44 questions ask about Standard English Conventions. These questions ask about concepts like grammar, usage, and punctuation. You might need to insert or delete a comma, fix an essay prompts apostrophe, change a verb tense, or ensure subject-verb agreement. Here's a straightforward sample question about apostrophe rules in singular vs. plural nouns. This question, as with all the Writing questions, refers to a passage (not pictured here). The remaining 24 questions fall into an umbrella category that College Board calls Expression of Ideas.
These questions ask you to make larger structural changes to improve the dissertation legislation flow of how to research ideas and organization of paragraphs . Just like in the Reading section, some of these questions have to do with the skill areas, Command of Evidence, Words in Context, and Analysis in History/Social Studies and Science. This sample question, for dissertation business example, asks you to how to choose the best introductory sentence for a passage. This next sample question is focused on evidence , or the reason why a writer should or shouldn't add a sentence to improve clarity. In this example, you can see a portion of the passage to which the questions refer. Both of these questions can be classified as Words in of michigan 2 Context questions , since they ask you to improve word choice. Finally, these next couple of questions ask about data interpretation. These ones are an example of an Analysis in Science question. College Board classifies these questions in a variety of ways, and these categories can get blurry since some of them appear on both the Reading and Writing sections.
One way to keep them straight is to divide them into little picture and big picture questions. Little picture questions ask you to apply a grammar rule or fix punctuation. Big picture questions ask you to business legislation reorganize ideas, provide evidence for a change, or interpret data. Altogether, the university of michigan supplement 2 questions ask you to fix a passage and business, make it better with editorial revisions. Now that you have a sense of what’s tested in Writing, read on for a few study tips for genetics prompts mastering this section. If you've written a paper, email, or even just a text message, then you've surely done some editing to make sure you're communicating exactly what you want to dissertation say. Below are a few tips to develop the kind of editing skills that will help you succeed on the Writing section of the SAT. As mentioned above, you can think of the Writing section as containing two main types of questions - those that have to do with little picture changes , like grammar and punctuation, and those that ask about big picture changes , like sentence order and organization of ideas. To prepare for essay on mercy petition little picture questions, you should review all the dissertation business legislation relevant rules of grammar, punctuation, and write a working research, usage. Some of business these rules include subject-verb agreement, parallel structure, and comma and essay on mercy, apostrophe use. Dissertation Business. Your prep materials should break down each rule and igcse english language assignment, pair it with sample questions so you can see how the PSAT tests each one.
As for the big picture changes, you should practice active reading on argument-based, explanatory, and nonfiction narrative texts. Legislation. As you read SAT passages and other works that you may be assigned in school, keep an eye on structure, how ideas are introduced, transitions between sentences and paragraphs, and introductions and conclusions. Engage with a work and think about why the author chose to how to thesis for a paper present the information in a certain way. It may also help to pay attention to teacher and peer feedback on your own writing. Dissertation Business. Similarly, you should take the time to edit your writing and, if possible, that of a peer. Through practice, you’ll develop your editorial eye! Taking timed PSAT/NMSQT practice tests is a key part of genetics your prep for all the sections. After you take a test, make sure you thoroughly go through the answer explanations and analyze your results. You might also calculate your subscores and cross-test scores to see how you fare on certain question types. For instance, you could calculate your cross-test score for Analysis in Science questions to dissertation business see how you do on on mercy these questions across both Reading and Writing and Language. By targeting your weak spots, you can focus on business legislation improving them and thereby bringing up your scores.
Don't worry too much about the Math No Calculator section. Rumor has it, some people did math before calculators were even invented. PSAT Math No Calculator: Structure, Skills, and Study Tips. This Math No Calculator is new to the PSAT (and SAT) this year. It’s very similar to the Math with Calculator, with one clear difference: you’re not allowed to discourse essays use a calculator on any of the questions. Don’t worry, though - the questions won’t require very complex calculations. Business Legislation. They’re meant to write a working thesis for a research test your conceptual understanding, rather than your ability to dissertation business write out complicated arithmetic by hand. Read on for the structure and skills tested in the Math No Calculator section, followed by on mercy some suggestions for your prep. PSAT Math No Calculator: Structure. The Math No Calculator is the shortest section on the PSAT at 25 minutes. Dissertation Business. You’ll answer 17 questions: first, 13 multiple choice and then 4 grid-ins, or student-produced responses.
The questions fall into three major skills areas, as you’ll see below. PSAT Math No Calculator: Skills and Sample Questions. The Math No Calculator section asks questions that fall into three main skills areas, as defined by College Board: Heart of Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, and Additional Topics. The chart below shows how many questions test each skill area. Questions that fall into the Heart of prompts Algebra questions ask about, as you might have guessed, algebra. You might find word problems or questions that ask you to solve for variables in linear equations or inequalities. Here’s one example of business a Heart of Algebra question. Passport to Advanced Math problems may ask you to work with quadratic functions and equations or exponential functions and equations. You may also solve for variables in 3 nonlinear expressions.
Here’s an dissertation business legislation example of this question type: The vaguely named Additional Topics contains all the concepts that don’t fit in the other categories. These include some geometry, trigonometry, and complex numbers questions. Here’s an example: Read on for a few study tips to keep in mind as you prep for the PSAT NMSQT Math No Calculator section.
PSAT Math No Calculator: Study Tips. While you may feel nervous about not getting to use a calculator on this section, rest assured that none of the problems require especially complex calculations. There may be a few that ask you to write out addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so you should brush up on your arithmetic skills and ability to write out problems by hand. The most common mistakes here are simply rushing through and how to write for a research, making a calculation error, so work on writing out these problems efficiently. Make sure your study materials break down each concept and try lots of practice questions in dissertation legislation addition to taking timed practice tests. A thorough conceptual understanding of the tested concepts is essential for doing well in this section. Finally, you can take out your trusty calculator and use it for how to write a working thesis paper the rest of the test.
You might find, though, that you don't actually need to use it on too many questions. PSAT Math with Calculator: Structure, Skills, and Sample Questions. The Math with Calculator section doesn’t look all that different than the Math No Calculator section apart from business two key differences. First, of course, you can use a calculator throughout. Second, over half of the questions in this section fall into a new skill area, Problem Solving and Data Analysis. Read on to see how this section works. PSAT Math with Calculator: Structure. The Math with Calculator section asks 31 questions. The first 27 are multiple choice and the remaining four are grid-ins. A couple of these grid-ins may be related to each other in what’s known as an Extended Thinking question. Read on jealousy essay for a more detailed breakdown of the requisite skills, along with sample questions in each skill area.
PSAT Math with Calculator: Skills and Sample Questions. About half of the questions in this section are similar to the ones in dissertation legislation the Math No Calculator section. They cover Heart of Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, and Additional Topics. The other half cover Problem Solving and Data Analysis. Here’s the exact breakdown: You saw an example of a Heart of Algebra above, but here’s one taken from the Math with Calculator section. You don’t really even need to use your calculator here, though you could if you wanted to plug in how to write a working research numbers to check your answer.
This Passport to Advanced Math question asks about functions. Again, you don't really need a calculator, even though you have the option of using one. As you read above, half the questions involve Problem Solving and dissertation legislation, Data Analysis. These questions may ask you to on mercy calculate ratios, rates, or percentages or work with scatterplots and graphs. Here’s are two sample questions:
Finally, Additional Topics covers geometry, trigonometry, and complex numbers. The following is a sample geometry question from the business Math with Calculator section on the PSAT/NMSQT. While most of the tips you read above will help you on both PSAT math sections, read on for a few tips specific to jealousy essay the Math with Calculator section. PSAT Math with Calculator: Study Tips. In addition to studying all the algebra, geometry, and business, trigonometry concepts you need to know for both sections, you should focus on Problem Solving and Data Analysis problems. Jealousy Essay. These questions involve word problems, graphs, scatterplots, percentages, rate, and dissertation legislation, ratios. Make sure you can work in these areas, since they make up half of the questions in this section.
Another consideration for this section is the essay on mercy petition idea of calculator fluency. Dissertation Legislation. Just because you can use a calculator on every problem doesn’t necessarily mean that you should. There are plenty of problems here that don’t require a calculator at all; using one might end up costing you time. As you study, make note of when a calculator is a useful and productive tool and when it’s not helpful for the work at hand. If you’ve made it this far, then you should have a good sense of the content and structure of all four sections of the PSAT/NMSQT. Let’s conclude with some final thoughts about the genetics essay prompts test and why it’s important for high school students. If you're a U.S. Legislation. citizen taking the PSAT/NMSQT in 11th grade, then you're in the running for National Merit distinction and scholarships! Final Thoughts About the PSAT/NMSQT. Most students take the PSAT/NMSQT in October of 11th grade.
Some may ask to take it earlier for practice. Let's review the two important functions of the SAT: National Merit distinction and preparation for the SAT. Taking the PSAT/NMSQT for jealousy essay National Merit. While taking the PSAT NMSQT as a younger student can be valuable test-taking experience earlier than 11th grade, you won’t be eligible for National Merit until you take it as a junior. Legislation. Juniors who score in the top 3-4%, or 96th to supplement 97th percentile, are named Commended Scholars. Those who earn top 1%, or 99th percentile, scores get named Semifinalists. Most of these Semifinalists can then apply to become Finalist and potentially gain scholarships. Even if you don’t ultimately get National Merit scholarship money, having that distinction on your college application is an dissertation impressive achievement. If you’re aiming for how to research paper National Merit, you should set aside time to prep in the months leading up to the test. Familiarizing yourself with the dissertation test, as you did if you got this far in the guide, is a first great step. Then you can go on to review the white essays tested concepts, take timed practice tests, and analyze your results to figure out how you can improve.
All of this studying will also help you get ready for the SAT, the other important benefit of taking the PSAT/NMSQT. Taking the PSAT/NMSQT to Get Ready for legislation the SAT. Studying for the PSAT/NMSQT will not only help you earn your target scores, but it will also help you get ready for the SAT! The two tests are very similar, so any studying you do for one will help on the other. In fact, the two tests are almost identical, with the SAT featuring slightly more advanced questions, as well as an optional Essay section. If you're running low on PSAT prep materials, you could use SAT practice tests or other prep guides to help you get ready.
Once you get your PSAT/NMSQT score report, you can use it to figure out your specific strengths and essay on mercy petition, weaknesses and dissertation, go from there. The PSAT NMSQT helps break the ice for test-takers. On Mercy Petition. Rather than going into the SAT cold, you can feel more experienced because you already sat through a very similar College Board test. Whether or not you’re aiming for PSAT NMSQT scholarships, the PSAT is great practice for the SAT and an important landmark on your road to legislation college! If you made it through this guide, it might be safe to assume you're getting ready for jealousy essay the PSAT! Check out this guide to find official PSAT practice tests and tips for how to make the most of them. While you now have a sense of how the PSAT is scored, you might be wondering what scores are considered good. Check out this guide to dissertation business legislation figure out what makes a good score on the PSAT/NMSQT. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at for a paper improving your score.
Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Rebecca graduated with her Master's in Adolescent Counseling from the legislation Harvard Graduate School of petition Education. She has years of teaching and college counseling experience and is passionate about helping students achieve their goals and improve their well-being. She graduated magna cum laude from Tufts University and scored in dissertation legislation the 99th percentile on the SAT.
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The Complete Guide to MLA Citations. This page provides an legislation, in-depth overview of MLA format. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for jealousy essay in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for business many different types of sources. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar:
Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information. Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the information you borrowed in an ethical way, and giving credit to the authors of the white, sources you used. Doing all of business these things prevents plagiarism. Plagiarism is the act of using others’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of plagiarism. Completely copying another individual’s work without providing credit to petition the original author is a very blatant example of business legislation plagiarism. Plagiarism also occurs when another individual’s idea or concept is jealousy essay passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is also plagiarism.
Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from business, another class or time and saying that it is new is plagiarism. One way to essays prevent plagiarism is to add citations in your project where appropriate. A citation shows the reader or viewer of your project where you found your information. Dissertation! Citations are included in the body of a project when you add a quote into your project. Citations are also included in genetics prompts the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. These citations that are found in the body of a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations. These citations are found directly after the information that was borrowed and are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project. Included in these brief citations is usually just the last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Scroll down below for an in-depth explanation and examples of in-text and parenthetical citations.
In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to where you found your information, it doesn't include the dissertation, title and of michigan other components. Look on the last page or part of dissertation business legislation a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety. Complete citations are found on what is called an essay petition, MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography. All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Works Cited page. Complete citations are created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in dissertation business the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. White Tropics Discourse! Included in complete citations is the author’s name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and a few other pieces of information. Looking to create your citations in dissertation just a few clicks?
Try Citation Machine’s MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to see more across the site. Also, check out this article to see MLA citation in the news. Citing your sources is an extremely important component of your research project. It shows that you’re a responsible researcher.
It also shows that you were able to locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is a chance that others will use your research project in their own work! Scroll down to find directions on petition, how to create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher. The Modern Language Association is an business legislation, organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and literature related. They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and tropics essays research paper layouts. Business Legislation! In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and research paper journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields. Liberal arts is a broad term used to dissertation business legislation describe a range of subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and essay social science such as geography, economics, history, and others.
The humanities specifically focuses on subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. While this citation style is most often used for legislation the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in essay on mercy petition MLA format. These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in the literature, language, and numerous other fields all cite their sources in dissertation the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the different components of essay a source. From looking at a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information. Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines!
Not only would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to locate it themselves. Business! This streamlined process that was created aides us in understanding a researcher’s sources. How is the new version different than previous versions? This citation style has changed dramatically over jealousy essay, the past couple of years. Currently in its 8th edition, the 8th version is a citation style that is dissertation business much different than the previous formatting style. In the 7th version, which is the format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to put their citations together. Why? Each source used a different citation structure.
Researchers and scholars were required to look up the citation format that matched the type of source they used. So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and an e-book, all in one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of those sources because each was structured differently. Now, with the jealousy essay, new version of MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and dissertation business legislation innovative ways of obtaining information. We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways. For A Research Paper! To make the dissertation business, process of creating citations easier for researchers and scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types. Other changes were made as well. This includes: removing http:// and https:// from URLs. not including the city where a source was published or the name of the publisher from some source types (such as newspapers). the ability to use a screen name or username in place of an author’s full name. using the white tropics, abbreviations vol. and business legislation no., for volume and igcse english language coursework assignment number, when including information from a periodical. There are two types of citations.
There are regular or complete citations, which are found at business legislation, the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by english assignment the author’s last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to be able to locate the source themselves. Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the business legislation, version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the jealousy essay, name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is added into the regular citation. Not sure how to transfer the information from dissertation legislation, your source into your citation?
Confused about the term, “containers?” See below for information and genetics essay prompts complete explanations of each component of the citation. The other type of citation, called an dissertation business, “in text citation,” is included in the main part, or body, of essay petition a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source. See the next section to find out how to create in text citations. What are in text and parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to dissertation business quickly gain an idea as to where we found the information. These in text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information.
They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation. The regular, or complete, citation is 2 located at the end of a project. Here’s what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like: Throughout the legislation, novel, the mother uses a vast amount of Chinese wisdom to explain the discourse, world and dissertation business legislation people’s temperaments. She states, “each person is made of five elements….Too much fire and you have a bad temper. too little wood and you bent too quickly. too much water and you flowed in too many directions” (Tan 31). This specific in text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the reader sees that we are quoting something from jealousy essay, page 31 in Tan’s book. Business Legislation! The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the project because it would be too distracting for the reader. We want them to igcse language coursework focus on our work and research, not necessarily our sources. If the reader would like to see the source’s full information, and possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the regular citation.
The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this: Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Penguin, 1989, p. 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is business acceptable to place a paragraph number (use the abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. English Language Coursework 3! or secs.), or chapters (ch. or chs.). If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the business, exact point in the source, only include the author’s last name. More About Quotations and How to Cite a Quote: Use quotes from outside sources to essay on mercy petition help illustrate and expand on your own points, but the majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas. Dissertation Business! Include the quote exactly as you found it.
It is okay to pull and use only igcse language coursework 3 certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same. It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, “Toto,” then looked up and took in her surroundings, “I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore“ ( Wizard of Oz ). If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to dissertation business legislation make a block quote. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source. Start the quote on the next line, half an inch in supplement essay from the left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the business legislation, block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the next paragraph with the jealousy essay, same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at the end of the block quote. While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto say. “Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. “I went up and out of my body and I was looking down and dissertation business I could see the doctor working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy. You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and talking on the phone” (Burpo xxi).
Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used? Footnotes and essays endnotes are not used in this style. Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in dissertation business legislation the body of your work. In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help.
Citation Machine’s MLA citation generator is simple and jealousy essay easy to use! Specific Components of a Citation. This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section. The author’s name is usually the first item listed in the citation. Business! Author names start with the igcse language coursework assignment, last name, then a comma is added, and then the author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. A period closes this information. Here are two examples of how an author’s name can be listed in a citation: Poe, Edgar Allan.
Wondering how to format the author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in dissertation legislation which they appear on jealousy essay, the source. Place their names in this format: First listed author’s Last Name, First name, and Second author’s First Name Last Name. Here are two examples of how to dissertation business cite two authors: Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley. Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox.
There are many times when three or more authors work together on prompts, a source. This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format: First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only include the first author’s name. The other authors are accounted for by using et al. In Latin, et al. is translated to “and others.” If using Citation Machine’s citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you.
Here’s an dissertation, example of a citation for three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al. How to Buy a House in California . Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the citation with the title of the source. Was the language coursework, source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the author’s handle, username, or screen name.
Here is an example of how to cite a tweet: @CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about digital access at @UMBCHumanities. We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter , 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521. While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on dissertation legislation, someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in essay the citation. If you’re using Citation Machine’s citation generator, you will be able to choose the individual’s role from a drop down box. For example, let’s say that in your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an actor.
You’re quoting a line from the movie, Titanic , in your project, and you’re creating a complete citation for dissertation business it in the Works Cited list. It is acceptable to show the reader that you’re focusing on Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by citing it like this in the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Paper! Titanic . Directed by James Cameron. Business! Paramount, 1997.
Notice that when citing an individual other than the author, place the individual’s role after their name. White Tropics Discourse Essays! In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the business legislation, performer. This is often done with edited books, too. Place the editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor. If you’re still confused about how to place the authors together in essay a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is easy to use and will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on dissertation business legislation, the source, and in title form, meaning the important words start with a capital. Here’s an example of a title written properly: Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks. Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not.
If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics. If the title is part of a larger whole, place the jealousy essay, title of the dissertation business, source in quotation marks and the source it sits in, in italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an university supplement 2, article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the business, sources that they are found in are written in italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and how to research paper their containers. To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall , cite it as this: Pink Floyd.
The Wall . Dissertation Business! Columbia, 1979. To cite one of the essay on mercy, songs on Pink Floyd’s album, cite it as this: Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in the Wall (Part I).” The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this: Colfer, Chris. Legislation! The Land of Stories . Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65. From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container.
Wondering how? When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the on mercy, first container is the journal. The second container? It’s the dissertation legislation, database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the first container is the jealousy essay, name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the dissertation legislation, second container is found at the end of the english language coursework 3, citation. Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the dissertation business, author, First name of the author. Jealousy Essay! “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the legislation, source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the genetics prompts, publisher, the dissertation legislation, date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Title of essay Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the business legislation, name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location. If the source has more than two containers, add on on mercy petition, another full other section at the end for each container.
Not all of the fields in the citation format above need to be included in your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves. Here is an legislation, example of write a working paper a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on dissertation business legislation, is the other. Zanetti, Francois. “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in of michigan Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and Culture , vol.
54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530. Project Muse , muse.jhu.edu/article/520280. If you’re still confused about containers, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machine’s website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the business legislation, reader locate the university 2, source themselves, include their names in legislation the citation. To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the university of michigan supplement essay 2, individual, the word by, and then their name in dissertation legislation standard order. If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased.
Here’s an example of a citation for a children’s book with the name of the illustrator included. Rubin, Adam. Dragons Love Tacos . Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the essay on mercy, citation. If the source that you’re citing states that it is dissertation business a specific version or edition, this information is placed in how to write thesis for a research paper the “versions” section of the citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Here is an business legislation, example of write a citation with a specific edition: Koger, Gregory. “Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered , edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236. Google Books , books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwClpg=PP1dq=10th%20editionpg=PR6#v=onepageq=10th%20editionf=false.
Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the “numbers” section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the dissertation business, abbreviations vol. and no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation. In MLA format citing, it is important to include the name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves. Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the name of the website.
Furthermore, the name of the publisher is genetics prompts often excluded from the citation for second containers, since the publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the dissertation business, source’s content. Publication dates are extremely important to include in essay citations. Legislation! They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of two ways.
Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. Jealousy Essay! If using the Citation Machine’s citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation. While it isn’t necessary to include the business legislation, full date for all source citations, use the amount of information that makes the most sense to help your readers understand and locate the prompts, source themselves. Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date?
Use the date that is most applicable to your research. The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is not necessary to include this information. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Example: p. 6. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the page numbers. Example: pp. Business Legislation! 24-38. Since the jealousy essay, location is the dissertation legislation, final piece of the citation, place a period at the end. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you?
Citation Machine can help! Our site is simple (and fun!) to use. ALL sources use this format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Petition! * Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the dissertation legislation, second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the essay, date the second container was published, location. *If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation.
Remember, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more. Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games . Scholastic, 2008. Khan, Maryam. “Co-branding in dissertation business legislation the Restaurant Industry.” Managing Tourism and Hospitality Services: Theory and how to a working thesis research paper International Application . Edited by B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. Business Legislation! 73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. “Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of Augmented Reality and its Implications for white tropics essays the User in the Field of Library and Information Science.” Information Technology Libraries , vol.
33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 23-50. Online Scholarly Journal Articles: Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. “Injuries in business legislation Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and supplement essay 2 Games.” Journal of Athletic Training , vol. 51. no. 2, Dec. 2016, p. Dissertation Business Legislation! 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCAsw=wu=nyplv=2.1id=GALE%7CA484460772it=rasid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97.
When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. They’re not actually citing the entire website. Here is the most common way to cite a page on a website: Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. If there isn’t an author listed, do not include this information in the citation.
Start the citation with the title. The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher matches the name of the of michigan essay 2, author or the business, name of the title, do not include the publisher’s information in the citation. The date the page or website was published comes next. End the citation with the URL.
When including the URL, remove http:// and https:// from the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to university of michigan 2 include it in the citation. Last name, First name of author. “ Title of Web Page .” Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL. Rothfeld, Lindsay. “Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom.” Mashable , 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH. (When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and https:// from the URL.)
Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. “Medium Cool.” New York Observer , 2 Mar. 2015, pp. 14-17. Skiba, Katherine. “Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on Monday.” Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html. “Three Turkeys.” Modern Family , produced by Steven Levitan and business legislation Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014.
Home Alone . Performance by Macaulay Culkin, directed by Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. “Skream b2B Solardo Live from Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami.” YouTube , 29 Mar. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg. Gates, Melinda. “Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept France’s Legion of Honour award on behalf of all our foundation’s partners and write a working thesis for a research grantees.” Twitter , 21 Apr. Business Legislation! 2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200. There are a variety of ways to cite an image. This section will show how to cite a digital image found on a website and 2 an image in dissertation print.
How to cite a digital image: Use this structure to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). “Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns.
** If the name of the publisher is the same as the how to write a working thesis research, author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. “NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and dissertation business legislation Team Offenses.” RotoBaller , www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar. Wondering how to cite an tropics, image found through a search engine, such as Google? Head to dissertation the site where the image “lives,” by clicking on the link that leads you to the website. Cite the image using the information from the original site. How to cite an image in print:
Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Title or Description of the jealousy essay, Image * . Title of the business, Container, such as a the Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range. * if the thesis research, digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Legislation! Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. White Tropics! In addition, only capitalize the first letter in dissertation legislation the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the coursework, publisher in the citation. Photograph of Kate Middleton. Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in dissertation legislation print, you’ll need the following pieces of information. They can be found on the cover of the paper, magazine and on the article itself: The name of the magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the author of the article The page or page range the article is found on.
On the business, cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published. On the article itself, you can find the name of the article’s author(s), the title of the essay prompts, article, and business the page or page range that the essay, article is found on. If the article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Example: 61+ Place the information in this format: Last name, First name of the Article’s Author. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above:
Gopnik, Adam. Dissertation! “A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited.” The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp. 61-66. An essay is an analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to books and essay petition journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the legislation, individual author or the group of authors, the title of the essay (placed in quotation marks), the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on (in italics), the university essay 2, name of the editor (if there is one), the volume and issue number (if they are available), the dissertation, publication date, and the location. The location can be either a page range or a URL. Here is an MLA formatting example of how to igcse language coursework cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. “Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to business legislation Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere.” Harvard Law Review Forum , vol.
125, no. 58, 7 Jan. Write Thesis! 2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/. Place the name of the person being interviewed at dissertation, the beginning of the citation, in the author’s position The title or description of the interview comes next. If there isn’t a formal title, only use the word Interview as the title and do not place it in quotation marks or italics. If found online or in essay prompts a book, include the title of the website or book after the title. After the dissertation, title, it is acceptable to include the name of the on mercy, interviewer.
Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if it’s relevant to business legislation the research paper. Include the essay on mercy petition, publisher if it is a published interview and if it differs from any other information already found in the citation. Include the date that the interview was either published or the date that the interview occurred. If found online, include the dissertation business legislation, URL. Or, if found in a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range. Here are two examples: Gutman, Dan. “Interview with Children’s Author Dan Gutman.” The Washington Post , 9 Mar.
2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html. Lin, Brenda. Essay! Interview. Legislation! By Michele Kirschenbaum. 17 July 2017.
Check to see if the the PDF is petition written by an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company. If it is not written by an individual or a set of business legislation authors, use the name of the organization or company responsible for creating the essay, PDF in place of the dissertation business, author’s name. Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the university of michigan, name of the publisher is different than the dissertation legislation, name of the author or the language 3, title), the publication date, and the location (usually a URL if found online). Notice that in dissertation the example below, the name of the publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the white essays, name of the publisher is the same name as the author. MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf. To cite a full textbook in print, you’ll need to find the dissertation business legislation, following pieces of information:
The name of the author(s) or editor(s) The title of the textbook, including any subtitles The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the of michigan supplement 2, publisher The year the business, textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the Textbook . Version, Publisher, Year published. If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor. Examples of how to cite a textbook in print: Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012.
Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. White! Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015. How to Cite a Chapter from a Textbook in dissertation Print: To cite an individual chapter, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the author(s) of the individual chapter or section The title of the how to write a working for a paper, individual chapter or section The title of the textbook The name of the editors of the textbook The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the chapter author. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the Textbook , edited by dissertation business legislation First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C., and jealousy essay Michael J. Dissertation! Murphy. “Student Choice in supplement essay the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components.” Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by dissertation business Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp.
50-63. Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the type of survey you’re attempting to cite. To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of the Survey.” Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. “Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey.” Food Insight , International Center of how to for a research Excelled in legislation Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf. To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. On Mercy! “Title of Survey.” Title of dissertation business Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on. Don’t see your source type on essay, this guide?
Citation Machine’s citation generator can create your citations for dissertation legislation you! Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in just a few clicks. Looking for how to write a working thesis for a research paper APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in business legislation the news. When it comes to prompts formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow.
The section that follows will answer the following questions: How to format an MLA paper , How to create papers , and How to dissertation write in MLA format . English Language Coursework Assignment! If you’re trying to learn how to dissertation business legislation format your essay, this section will help you too. Use paper that is 8?-by-11 inch in of michigan 2 size. This is the standard size for copier and printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and business right sides of the paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the margins of jealousy essay your paper by going to the “Page setup” section of your word processor. Dissertation! Click here for university of michigan supplement 2 more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters. Legislation! Times New Roman, Arial, and essay on mercy Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font. Should I double space the paper, including citations? Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of information in the heading Place a double space between the heading and the title Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is legislation aligned, or lies flush, against on mercy petition the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin Use the “tab” button on your keyboard to dissertation legislation create an indent Add one space after all punctuation marks.
Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professor’s name The course number Date Dates in the heading and the body of igcse english language your essay should be consistent. Dissertation! Use the coursework, same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the dissertation business legislation, entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the heading, centered in essay on mercy the middle of the dissertation business legislation, page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters. Number all pages, including the jealousy essay, Works Cited page Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin. Include your last name to the left of the page number. The Works Cited list should be at the end of the paper, on its own page.
If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent). For more information on dissertation business, the Works Cited list, refer to “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below. According to the Modern Language Associatin’s official guidelines for of michigan supplement essay formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to create or include an individual title page at business, the beginning of a research project. Instead, follow the directions above, under “Heading Title,” to create a proper heading. This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the research paper or research assignment.
If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and university essay 2 you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page. You may want to include other information, such as the dissertation business, name of your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at the end of a research paper or project.
It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project. Essay! Follow these directions to business legislation format the Works Cited list to match the Modern Language Association’s guidelines. The Works Cited list has its own page, at the end of a research project Include the same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and then the white discourse essays, page number). Legislation! The Works Cited List has the on mercy, final page number for the project. Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it as “Work Cited.” The title of the page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the top of the page, centered in the middle of the document. Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation.
Citations are listed in dissertation business legislation alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the first word in language 3 the title if the citation does not include the author’s name. Ignore A, An, and The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is business legislation long in length, and university of michigan supplement rolls onto a second or third line, the lines below the first line are indented half an inch from the left margin. This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of Historical Research in Music Education , vol. 22, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635. Works Cited pages can be longer than one page.
Use as many pages as necessary. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).
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a lost lady essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Dissertation Business. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Analysis of Theme in Willa Cather#039;s a Lost Lady - Ghost Writing Essays. Sarah Snow Paper 3 Writing in the Discipline of English October 10, 2012 Central Themes in A Lost Lady * In Willa Cather’s A Lost Lady (1923), the author tells a story of a boy named Neil who’s growth into manhood is molded by jealousy essay the Forresters; the Captain who represented the pioneer spirit of the old west in the United States, and the beautiful Marian whom he idolized to dissertation business legislation such an extent that her moral downfall initiated his loss of essay petition, innocence. As he grows up, his family, friends, and his home of Sweet Water change. Where the Forresters were once the pillars of grandeur and dissertation business, dignity, they fall into poverty and genetics essay, sickness. The Captain’s passing signifies the end of a time when those who shaped the country prospered in its unsoiled splendor. Marian’s affair and her surrender to Ivy Peter’s signifies the change to an age when moral compromises became commonplace, and the land is dissertation business raped of its natural wonder to gain money and power.
Loss, change, and jealousy essay, growth from change shape his character, just as the relationships of those around him to the land display the changes in society and the end of the pioneer era. Of the business legislation, many themes Cather presents, one of importance is the essay on mercy, relationship the characters have with nature. Captain Forrester represents the awe and splendor of progression and advancement that does not spoil the environment. Even though he is a hardy railroad man who made his fortune laying train tracks across the country for man’s use, he takes great pleasure in his home in Sweet Water. Legislation. He relishes in the untouched exquisiteness of his property, refusing to drain the igcse english language coursework, marsh. He won’t allow hunting on his land, and spends hours at a time caring for and gazing upon his precious roses. The great care the Captain puts in to his roses signifies not only his bond with nature, but also his desire to posses and admire something beautiful that belongs to dissertation him. This can be compared to his relationship with Marian.
He observes and adores her. He does not have a physical or emotional connection with her. He merely wants to have her as something pretty that is his alone, that he can care for and provide for. He enjoys when people admire his wife, as if she is an object of write thesis, adoration rather than affection. The first time we see Marian; she is arranging roses in a decorative bowl. This foreshadows the connection between Marian and dissertation business legislation, the roses, as if to say she the visage of natural beauty, but dangerous to essay get close to. Neil cuts wild roses to surprise her, a symbol of youthful love. Yet as every rose has its thorn, he catches her with Frank Ellinger, and discards them in the mud; a display of rage at her infidelity. He feels that #8220;It was not a moral scruple she had outraged, but an legislation aesthetic ideal#8221; (72). Neil#8217;s image of Marian as the perfect woman has been shattered.
The thorns of her adulterous conduct have pricked his heart. Igcse English Language Assignment 3. Ivy Peters is a direct contrast to the Captain. From the beginning, Ivy is rude, selfish, and vile. He holds no respect for the Captain’s land, or the creatures that dwell there. Ivy demonstrated early on his hatred for nature and the joy he gets from legislation destruction. * “He held the woodpecker’s head in a vice made of how to a working thesis for a, his thumb and forefinger, enclosing its pants body with his palm. Quick as a flash, as if it were a practiced trick, with one of business, those tiny blades he slit both eyes that glared in the bird’s stupid little head, and instantly released it” 17). This violence, along with the rumor of him killing the neighborhood dogs, foreshadows the kind of man Ivy becomes. Eventually, he buys the land from the university essay, Forresters to save them from poverty, but only to have them submit to his mercy. He drains the marsh that the boys use to play in. He not only uses it for profit, he enjoys seeing it gone. He has proven his dominance over dissertation the Forresters, just as he dominated the bird. * Loss, and change in response to loss dominate much of Neil’s life.
The story commences when Neil is a small boy and,“Mrs. Essay On Mercy. Forrester was still a young woman, and Sweet Water was a town of which great things were expected” (8). When he returns from Boston as an adult, she has grown older and weary from poverty and hard work, much like Sweet Water. The town no longer prospers from the Burlington Railroad, and the social elite who made the business, town what it was have all gone, or become humbled by tropics discourse essays their poor circumstances. Business. As Neil grows into an adult and leaves the innocence of childhood behind him, everything around him that he loved fades with it. Igcse Coursework Assignment 3. Marian most embodies Neil’s loss. She begins as the epitome of grace and dissertation business legislation, exquisiteness in his boyhood. He fell in love with her persona, which forever shaped the standard to which he held all women in his life. Her affair reveals to Neil a side of essay petition, her he never imagined possible: * * “In that instant between stooping to the window-sill and dissertation business, rising, he had lost one of the most beautiful things in his life . . . This day saw the end of that admiration and igcse language coursework assignment 3, loyalty that had been like a bloom on his existence” (71-72). Dissertation Business. * Just as she falls from the pedestal Neil has placed her on, the Forresters’ status as the royalty in Sweet Water fades, and university supplement essay 2, they fall victim to dissertation legislation the scrutiny and judgment of the townsfolk. Captain Forrester’s bank fails, they lose their fortune and of michigan supplement essay, people like Ivy take advantage of the fact that, “The Forresters have come down in the world” (88).
The Captain’s health deteriorates leading to his eventual death. Legislation. Marian becomes empty and aimless, and “Lost” without him. She spends her time with younger men in an attempt to regain lost youth and turns to Ivy for unscrupulous financial support. She sheds her persona as the graceful, admirable Mrs. Forrester, killing all that was left of who Neil wanted her to supplement 2 be. Neil had expected her to remain loyal to her late husband’s memory, as a Lady would. By accepting Ivy Peters as her personal lawyer and giving in to his crass behavior, she has severed any ties to her old life and becomes lost in her struggle to survive.
Neil’s home and the woman whom he idolized have fallen victim to the changing times. * The Captain was the true embodiment of the pioneer spirit of the legislation, American west. As a railroad man, he thrived on jealousy essay, moving forward towards new horizons. Although he was not Neil’s father, his example instilled in Neil the dissertation business, kinds of jealousy essay, principles that set him apart from his peers. Business Legislation. He believed in and prospered from an ideal many pioneers of the time shared: “my philosophy is that what you think of and plan for day by write for a day, in spite of dissertation legislation, yourself, so to speak—you will get. On Mercy Petition. . . . All our great West has been developed from such dreams . . . We dreamed the railroads across the mountains . . . ” (44). He was a founder of his community, a railroad builder, and an aristocrat. He lived a luxurious life, adorning his wife with jewels and throwing fabulous parties. He lived the American dream. But he treated those around him with respect. Dissertation Legislation. At his own expense, the jealousy essay, Captain repays the depositors after his bank collapses, despite his resulting ruin. Business Legislation. He fights desperately to persevere a code of honor and honesty that his customers depended on, and is left with nothing but his good name. Most saw his sacrifice as weakness, including Marian.
In the economic turmoil of a growing America, honor and dignity fall prey to the clever young businessmen. Cather illustrates Neil’s struggles to hold on to that spirit till the end, but the loss Forresters and all they once stood for in his life drives him to find his own place in the new world far away from Sweet Water. He leaves behind the land he treasured. He discovers the importance of holding on to his values in a world run by men like Ivy Peters. He witnesses the end of an era with the demise of Captain Forrester.
After a period of resentment, he learns to accept Marian as she really is, letting go of of michigan, his need to save her from herself. He realizes that his adoration of her laid in the way that, “ . . she had always the dissertation business, power of suggesting things much lovelier than herself, as the perfume of a single flower may call up the whole sweetness of spring” (147). He loved all the things he wanted her to be and all the things she wasn’t. Just like the Captain, he loved a woman who was never truly attainable, but belonged completely to him. He realizes that she was never really lost. Marian Forrester was a beautiful paradox; a rose whose allure drew in jealousy essay, the best of men, but her thorns pierced their hearts and kept all at dissertation business, a distance. How To A Working Thesis For A Research Paper. Works Cited Cather, Willa.
A Lost Lady. New York: Vintage Books, 1971. Print.
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Can There Be an Islamic Democracy? Middle East Quarterly. Spring 2007, pp. 71-79. Are Islam and democracy compatible? A large literature has developed arguing that Islam has all the ingredients of business legislation, modern state and society.
Many Muslim intellectuals seek to university of michigan 2 prove that Islam enshrines democratic values. But rather than lead the debate, they often follow it, peppering their own analyses with references to business Western scholars who, casting aside traditional Orientalism for the theories of the late literary theorist and polemicist Edward Said, twist evidence to fit their theories. Why such efforts? For Western scholars, the tropics discourse essays answer lies both in politics and the often lucrative desire to please a wider Middle East audience. For Islamists, though, the motivation is to remove suspicion about the nature and goals of Islamic movements such as the dissertation business Muslim Brotherhood and, perhaps, even Hezbollah. Some Western researchers support the jealousy essay Islamist claim that parliamentary democracy and representative elections are not only compatible with Islamic law, but that Islam actually encourages democracy.
They do this in one of business legislation, two ways: either they twist definitions to make them fit the apparatuses of Islamic governmentterms such as democracy become relativeor they bend the reality of life in Muslim countries to a working fit their theories. Among the best known advocates of the idea that Islam both is compatible and encourages democracy is John L. Esposito, founding director of the Alwaleed bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University and the author or editor of more than thirty books about Islam and business legislation, Islamist movements. Esposito and his various co-authors build their arguments upon tendentious assumptions and platitudes such as democracy has many and varied meanings; every culture will mold an independent model of democratic government; and there can develop a religious democracy. He argues that Islamic movements have internalized the white discourse essays democratic discourse through the concepts of shura [consultation], ijma' [consensus], and ijtihad [independent interpretive judgment] and concludes that democracy already exists in the Muslim world, whether the word democracy is used or not. If Esposito's arguments are true, then why is democracy not readily apparent in the Middle East? Freedom House regularly ranks Arab countries as among the least democratic anywhere. Esposito adopts Said's belief that Western scholarship and business legislation, standards are inherently biased and lambastes both scholars who pass such judgments without experience with Islamic movements and those who have a secular bias toward Islam. For example, in Islam and Democracy , Esposito and of michigan essay 2, co-author John Voll, associate director of the Prince Alwaleed Center, question Western attempts to monopolize the definition of democracy and suggest the very concept shifts meanings over time and place. They argue that every culture can mold an independent model of democratic government, which may or may not correlate to business the Western liberal idea. Only after eviscerating the meaning of democracy as the english coursework 3 concept developed and derived from Plato and Aristotle in ancient Greece through Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in eighteenth century America, can Esposito and his fellow travelers advance theories of the compatibility of Islamism and democracy. While Esposito's arguments may be popular within the Middle East Studies Association, democracy theorists tend to dismiss such relativism.
Larry Diamond, co-editor of the Journal of Democracy , and Leonardo Morlino, a specialist in comparative politics at the University of Florence, ascribe seven features to any democracy: individual freedoms and civil liberties; rule of the law; sovereignty resting upon the people; equality of all citizens before the law; vertical and horizontal accountability for government officials; transparency of the ruling systems to the demands of the citizens; and equality of legislation, opportunity for citizens. This approach is important, since it emphasizes civil liberties, human rights and freedoms, instead of over-reliance on elections and genetics, the formal institutions of the state. Esposito ignores this basic foundation of business legislation, democracy and english coursework assignment 3, instead draws inspiration from men such as Indian philosopher Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), Sudanese religious leader Hasan al-Turabi (1932-), Iranian sociologist Ali Shariati (1933-77), and dissertation, former Iranian president Muhammad Khatami (1943-), who argue that Islam provides a framework for combining democracy with spirituality to remedy the alleged spiritual vacuum in Western democracies. They endorse Khatami's view that democracies need not follow a formula and can function not only in university of michigan essay 2 a liberal system but also in socialist or religious systems; they adopt the important twentieth century Indian (and, later, Pakistani) exegete Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi's concept of a theo-democracy, in dissertation legislation which three principles: tawhid (unity of God), risala (prophethood) and khilafa (caliphate) underlie the Islamic political system. But Mawdudi argues that any Islamic polity has to accept the supremacy of Islamic law over all aspects of political and university of michigan, religious lifehardly a democratic concept, given that Islamic law does not provide for equality of all citizens under the law regardless of religion and dissertation, gender. On Mercy Petition! Such a formulation also denies citizens a basic right to decide their laws, a fundamental concept of business legislation, democracy. Genetics Prompts! Although he uses the phrase theo-democracy to suggest that Islam encompassed some democratic principles, Mawdudi himself asserted Islamic democracy to be a self-contradiction: the sovereignty of God and sovereignty of the people are mutually exclusive. An Islamic democracy would be the antithesis of secular Western democracy. Esposito and Voll respond by saying that Mawdudi and dissertation business, his contemporaries did not so much reject democracy as frame it under the genetics prompts concept of God's unity.
Theo-democracy need not mean a dictatorship of state, they argue, but rather could include joint sovereignty by all Muslims, including ordinary citizens. Esposito goes even further, arguing that Mawdudi's Islamist system could be democratic even if it eschews popular sovereignty, so long as it permits consultative assemblies subordinate to business Islamic law. While Esposito and Voll argue that Islamic democracy rests upon concepts of white essays, consultation ( shura ), consensus ( ijma' ), and independent interpretive judgment ( ijtihad ), other Muslim exegetes add hakmiya (sovereignty). To support such a conception of Islamic democracy, Esposito and business, Voll rely on Muhammad Hamidullah (1908-2002), an prompts, Indian Sufi scholar of Islam and international law; Ayatollah Baqir as-Sadr (1935-80), an business, Iraqi Shi'ite cleric; Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician; Khurshid Ahmad, a vice president of the Jama'at-e-Islami of igcse assignment, Pakistan; and Taha al-Alwani, an dissertation business, Iraqi scholar of Islamic jurisprudence. The inclusion of Alwani underscores the fallacy of Esposito's theories. In 2003, the igcse language coursework 3 FBI identified Alwani as an unindicted co-conspirator in a trial of suspected Palestinian Islamic Jihad leaders and financiers. Just as Esposito eviscerates the meaning of democracy to legislation enable his thesis, so, too, does he twist Islamic concepts. Shura is an igcse language coursework assignment 3, advisory council, not a participatory one. It is a legacy of tribalism, not sovereignty. Nor does ijma' express the consensus of the community at legislation large but rather only the elders and a working thesis research paper, established leaders. As for independent judgment, many Sunni scholars deem ijtihad closed in the eleventh century. Esposito's arguments have not only permeated the Middle Eastern studies academic community but also gained traction with public intellectuals through books written by journalists and business, policy practitioners.
In both journal articles and book length works as well as in underlying assumptions within her reporting, former Los Angeles Times and current Washington Post diplomatic correspondent Robin Wright argues that Islamism could transform into more democratic forms. In 2000, for example, she argued in The Last Great Revolution that a profound transformation was underway in of michigan supplement essay Iran in dissertation which pragmatism replaced revolutionary values, arrogance had given way to realism, and the government of God was ceding to secular statecraft. Far from becoming more democratic, though, the supreme leader and Revolutionary Guards consolidated control; freedoms remain elusive, political prisoners incarcerated, and democracy imaginary. Underlying Wright's work is the idea that neither Islam nor Muslim culture is on mercy a major obstacle to political modernity. She accepts both the Esposito school's arguments that shura , ijma' , and dissertation business legislation, ijtihad form a basis on which to make Islam compatible with political pluralism. She shares John Voll's belief that Islam is an integral part of the modern world, and she says the language 3 central drama of reform is the attempt to reconcile Islam and modernity by creating a worldview compatible with both. In her article Islam and Liberal Democracy, she profiles two prominent Islamist thinkers, Rachid al-Ghannouchi, the exiled leader of Tunisia's Hizb al-Nahda (Renaissance Party), and Iranian philosopher and analytical chemist Abdul-Karim Soroush. While she argues that their ideas represent a realistic confluence of Islam and democracy, she neither defines democracy nor treats her cases studies with a dispassionate eye. Legislation! Ghannouchi uses democratic terms without accepting them let alone understanding their meaning. He remains not a modernist but an thesis for a research, unapologetic Islamist. Wright ignores that Soroush led the purge of liberal intellectuals from Iranian universities in the wake of the Islamic Revolution. While Soroush spoke of civil rights and tolerance, he applied such privileges only to those subscribing to dissertation legislation Islamic democracy. He also argued that although Islam means submission, there is university 2 no contradiction to the freedoms inherent in democracy. Islam and democracy are not only compatible but their association inevitable. In a Muslim society, one without the other is dissertation legislation imperfect.
He argues that the will of the majority shapes the ideal Islamic state. But, in practice, this does not occur. As in how to write a working thesis for a research paper Iran, many Islamists constrain democratic processes and crush civil society. Dissertation! Those with guns, not numbers, shape the state. Among Arab-Islamic states, there are only authoritarian regimes and patrimonial leadership; the jury is university of michigan supplement essay 2 still out on whether Iraq can be a stable exception. Dissertation! Soroush, however, contradicts himself: Although Islam should be an open religion, it must retain its essence.
His argument that Islamic law is expandable would be considered blasphemous by many contemporaries who argue that certain principles within Islamic law are immutable. University Supplement Essay 2! Upon falling out of favor with revolutionary authorities in Iran, he fled to the West. Sometimes, academics only dissertation face the fallacy of what sounds plausible in a working paper the ivy tower when events force them to face reality. What Ghannouchi and Soroush have in common, and what remains true with any number of other Islamist officials, is business legislation that, regardless of genetics, rhetoric, they do not wish to reconcile Islam and modernity but to change the political order. It is easier to adopt the rhetoric of democracy than its principles. While time has proven Wright wrong, the persistence of Esposito exegetes remains. Every few years, a new face emerges to revive old arguments.
The most recent addition is Noah Feldman, a frequent media commentator and Arabic-speaking law professor at Harvard University. In 2003, Feldman published After Jihad: America and legislation, the Struggle for jealousy essay, Islamic Democracy , which explores the prospects for dissertation, democracy in the Islamic world. His thesis rehashes Esposito's 1992 book The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?  and the 1996 Esposito-Voll collaboration Islam and Democracy . Even after the 9-11 terrorist attacks, Feldman argues that the age of essay, violent jihad is legislation past, and english assignment 3, Islamism is evolving in new, more peaceful, and democratic directions. Included in Feldman's list of Islamic democrats is Yusuf al-Qaradawi, an Islamist theoretician who has endorsed suicide bombing and the murder of business legislation, homosexuals. While most academic debates do not exit the classroom, the debate over the compatibility of Islam and democracy affects policy. Feldman pushes the conclusion that the jealousy essay Islamist threat is illusionary. Business! Accordingly, he argues that Islamist movements should have a chance to govern. Feldman concludes with the prompts prescription that U.S. policymakers should adopt an inclusive attitude toward political Islam. An established religion that does not coerce religious belief and dissertation business, that treats religious minorities as equals may be perfectly compatible with democracy, he explained in a September 2003 interview. Shireen Hunter, a former Iranian diplomat who now directs the Islam program at the Center for igcse assignment 3, Strategic and International Studies, also repackages Esposito's general arguments in her book, The Future of dissertation legislation, Islam and the West: Clash of Civilizations or Peaceful Coexistence? , and, more recently, in Modernization, Democracy, and Islam , her edited collection with Huma Malik, the assistant director of Esposito's Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University.
Both books deny the Islamist threat and try to reconcile Islamic teachings with Western values. She seeks to genetics essay prompts counter Samuel Huntington's Clash of Civilization  and gives an assessment of the relative role of both conflictual and business legislation, cooperate factors of of michigan supplement essay, Muslim-Western relations. She argues that the fusion of the spiritual and the temporal in Islam is no greater than in legislation other religions. Therefore, the white discourse essays slower pace of dissertation business, democratization in Muslim countries cannot be attributed to Islam itself. Although Hunter acknowledges that Muslim countries have a poor record of modernization and democracy, she blames external factors such as colonialism and the international economic system. Other scholars take obsequiousness to new levels. Genetics Prompts! Anna Jordan, who gives no information about her expertise but is widely published on Islamist Internet sites, argues that the Qur'an supports the principles of Western democracy as they are defined by William Ebenstein and Edwin Fogelman, two professors of political science who focus on the ideas and ideologies that define democracy. By utilizing various Qur'anic verses, Jordan finds that the Islamic holy book supports rational empiricism and legislation, individual rights, rejects the state as the ultimate authority, promotes the freedom to associate with any religious group, accepts the idea that the state is subordinate to law, and accepts due process and basic equality. Most of her citations, though, do not support her conclusions and, in some cases, suggest the essay opposite.
Rather than support the idea of rational empiricism, for example, Sura 17:36 mandates complete submission to the authority of God. Other citations are irrelevant in business context and jealousy essay, substance to her arguments. Her assertion that the Qur'an assures the basic equality of all human beings rests upon verses commanding equality among Muslims and dissertation business legislation, Muslims only, plus a verse warning against schisms among Muslims. Gudrun Kramer, chair of the Institute of Islamic Studies at the Free University in Berlin, also accepts the Esposito thesis. She writes that the central stream in Islam has come to igcse english accept crucial elements of political democracy: pluralism, political participation, governmental accountability, the rule of law, and the protection of dissertation, human rights. White Tropics! In her opinion, the Muslim approach to human rights and freedom is more advanced than many Westerners acknowledge. Islamist Rejection of Esposito's Theory. Ironically, while Western scholars perform intellectual somersaults to demonstrate the compatibility of Islam and democracy, prominent Muslim scholars argue democracy to be incompatible with their religion. Business! They base their conclusion on two foundations: first, the conviction that Islamic law regulates the believer's activities in every area of jealousy essay, life, and dissertation business, second, that the Muslim society of believers will attain all its goals only if the believers walk in the path of God. In addition, some Muslim scholars further reject anything that does not have its origins in the Qur'an. Hasan al-Banna (1906-49), the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, sought to purge Western influences.
He taught that Islam was the essay only solution and that democracy amounted to infidelity to Islam. Sayyid Qutb (1906-66), the leading theoretician of the Muslim Brotherhood, objected to the idea of popular sovereignty altogether. He believed that the Islamic state must be based upon dissertation business, the Qur'an, which he argued provided a complete and moral system in need of no further legislation. Consultationin the traditional Islamic sense rather than in the manner of Esposito's extrapolationswas sufficient. Mawdudi, while used by Esposito, argued that Islam was the antithesis of any secular Western democracy that based sovereignty upon the people and rejected the basics of Western democracy. More recent Islamists such as Qaradawi argue that democracy must be subordinate to white discourse essays the acceptance of God as the basis of sovereignty. Democratic elections are therefore heresy, and since religion makes law, there is no need for legislative bodies. Outlining his plans to dissertation business legislation establish an Islamic state in english language assignment Indonesia, Abu Bakar Bashir, a Muslim cleric and the leader of the Indonesian Mujahideen Council, attacked democracy and the West and called on Muslims to dissertation business legislation wage jihad against the ruling regimes in the Muslim world. It is not democracy that we want, but Allah-cracy, he explained.
Nor does acceptance of write research, basic Western structures imply democracy. Under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the Islamic Republic adopted both a constitution and a parliament, but their existence did not make Iran more democratic. Indeed, Khomeini continued to wield supreme power and formed a number of bodiesthe revolutionary foundations, for examplewhich remained above constitutional law. The Islamic world is not ready to business absorb the basic values of modernism and democracy. Leadership remains the prerogative of the ruling elite. Arab and Islamic leadership are patrimonial, coercive, and authoritarian. Such basic principles as sovereignty, legitimacy, political participation and pluralism, and those individual rights and freedoms inherent in democracy do not exist in a system where Islam is the a working for a paper ultimate source of dissertation, law. The failure of democracies to take hold in Gaza and Iraq justify both the jealousy essay 1984 declaration by Samuel P. Huntington and the argument a decade later by Gilles Kepel, a prominent French scholar and analyst of radical Islam, that Islamic cultural traditions may prevent democratic development. Emeritus Princeton historian Bernard Lewis is also correct in dissertation legislation explaining that the term democracy is often misused.
It has turned up in surprising placesthe Spain of General Franco, the how to write a working for a research Greece of the colonels, the Pakistan of the generals, the Eastern Europe of the legislation commissarsusually prefaced by some qualifying adjective such as guided, basic, organic, popular, or the like, which serves to dilute, deflect, or even reverse the meaning of the how to write thesis for a research word. Islam may be compatible with democracy, but it depends on what is dissertation legislation understood as Islam. This is not universally agreed on and is based on a hope, not on reality. Both Turkey and the West African country of essay prompts, Mali are democracies even though the vast majority of their citizens are Muslim. But, the political Islam espoused by the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamists is incompatible with liberal democracy.
Furthermore, if language has an impact on thinking, then the Middle East will achieve democracy only slowly, if at all. In traditional Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, there is legislation no word for citizen. Rather, older texts use cognates in Arabic, muwatin ; in Turkish, vatandaslik ; in Persian, sharunad respectively, closer in meaning to the English compatriot or countryman. The Arabic and Turkish come from watan , meaning country. Essay On Mercy! Muwatin , is a neologism and dissertation legislation, while it suggests progress, the Western concept of freedomunderstood as the prompts ability to participate in the formation, conduct, and lawful removal and replacement of legislation, governmentremains alien in much of the essay 2 region. Islamists themselves regard liberal democracy with contempt. They are willing to accommodate it as an avenue to dissertation legislation power but as an avenue that runs only one way. Hisham Sharabi (1927-2005), the influential Palestinian scholar and political activist, has said that Islamic fundamentalism expresses mass sentiment and belief as no nationalist or socialist (and we may add democratic) ideology has been able to university of michigan essay 2 do up until now.
Why then are so many Western scholars keen to dissertation show the compatibility between Islamism and democracy? The popularity of post-colonialism and post-modernism within the academy inclines intellectuals to accommodate Islamism. Political correctness inhibits many from jealousy essay addressing the negative phenomenon in foreign cultures. It is considered laudable to prove the compatibility of Islam and democracy; it is dissertation legislation labeled Islamophobic or racist to suggest incompatibility or to differentiate between positive and negative interpretations of Islam. Many policymakers are also conflict-adverse. Islamists exploit the Western cultural desire to accommodate while Western thinkers and policymakers attempt to ameliorate differences by white tropics essays, seeking to find common ground in definitions if not reality. Into the mix comes Islamist propaganda, portraying Islam as peace-loving, embracing of civil rights and, even in its less tolerant forms, compatible with all democratic values. The problem is legislation that the how to write a working free world ignores the possibility that political Islam can threaten democracy not only in Middle Eastern societies but also in dissertation legislation the West. The legitimization of political Islam has lent democratic respectability to an ideology and political system at for a research odds with the basic tenets of democracy.
Esposito's statement that the United States must restrain its one-dimensional attitude to democracy and recognize [that] the authentic roots of democracy exist in Islam shows a basic ignorance of both democracy and Islamist teachings. These conclusions are exacerbated when Esposito places blame for the aggressiveness and business, terrorism of Islamic fundamentalism on essay on mercy the West and on dissertation legislation Said's Orientalists. It is one thing to be wrong in the classroom, but it can be far more dangerous when such wrong-headed theories begin to affect policy. David Bukay is a lecturer in jealousy essay the school of political science at dissertation legislation the University of Haifa.  John L. Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 211-2; John O. Voll and John L. Esposito, Islam and Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. Language Coursework Assignment 3! 18-21.  Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. 211-2; Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp. 18-21.  Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp.
211-2; Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp. 18-21; John L. Esposito and John O. Voll, Islam and Democracy, Humanities , Nov./Dec. 2001.  John L. Esposito and James Piscatory, Democratization and Islam, Middle East Journal , Summer 1991, p. Dissertation Business! 434; John O. How To Write A Working Paper! Voll and John L. Esposito Islam's Democratic Essence, Middle East Quarterly , Sept. 1994, pp. 7-8; Voll and dissertation business, Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp. 27-30, 186; Esposito and english, Voll, Islam and Democracy; Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. 49-50; John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. 45, 83, 142-8.
 John L. Esposito, What Everybody Needs to Know about Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 159-61; John L. Esposito, Contemporary Islam, in John L. Esposito, ed., The Oxford History of dissertation business, Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 675-80; Esposito and Piscatory, Democratization and Islam, p. 440.  Table of Independent Countries 2006, Freedom in the World, 2006 (Washington, D.C.: Freedom House, 2006).  Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. 203-4.  John L. Esposito, The Secular Bias of Scholars, The Chronicle of Higher Education , May 26, 1993.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.  Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp. 6-8, 27-30.
 Larry Diamond, et. al., eds., Democracy in how to write for a Developing Countries (London: Adamantine Press, 1988), pp. 218-60; Larry Diamond and Leonardo Morlino, The Quality of Democracy, Journal of Democracy , Oct. 2004; Robert A. Legislation! Dahl, Ian Shapiro, and Jose Antonio Cheibub, eds., The Democracy Sourcebook (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003).  See Robert A. Dahl, On Democracy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998).  Esposito, The Oxford History of Islam , pp. 661-7; Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path , pp. A Working! 137, 141, 181-3, 231, 245-6; Esposito and Piscatory, Democratization and business, Islam, pp.
436-7.  Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Political Theory of Islam, in Khurshid Ahmad, ed., Islam: Its Meaning and of michigan supplement essay, Message (London: Islamic Council of legislation, Europe, 1976), pp. Tropics! 159-61.  Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Islamic Way of Life (Delhi: Markazi Maktaba Islami, 1967), p. 40; Esposito and Piscatory, Democratization and Islam, pp. 436-7, 440; Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. Legislation! 125-6; Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp. 23-6.  Muhammad Yusuf, Maududi: A Formative Phase (Karachi: the jealousy essay Universal Message, 1979), p. Dissertation Business! 35.  Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Political Theory of Islam, in igcse coursework assignment 3 John J. Donahue and John L. Esposito, eds., Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspective (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), p. 253.
 Voll and dissertation business, Esposito, Islam's Democratic Essence, p. 7.  Esposito, The Islamic Threat , p. 126.  Taqi ad-Din Ibn Taymiyah, Mas'alah fil-'Aql wal-Nafs , in A.A.M. Qasim and M.A.A. Qasim, eds., Majmu'a fatawat Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (Riyyad: Matba'at al-Hukumah, 1996), vol. White Discourse Essays! 9, pp. 47-9; Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Political Theory of Islam, in Ahmad, Islam , pp. 149-51; Sayyid Qutb, Milestones ( Ma'alim fil Tariq) (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1990), pp. 111-3, 130-7.  Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy , pp.
27-30, 186; Esposito, The Islamic Threat , pp. 49-50; Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path , pp. 45, 83; Esposito and dissertation business, Piscatory, Democratization and Islam, p. 434.  See, for example, J. Essay! Michael Waller, Annenberg Professor of International Communication, Institute of World Politics, statement before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and legislation, Homeland Security, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Oct. 14, 2003.
 Clifford Edmond Boseworth, The Encyclopedia of essay on mercy petition, Islam (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960), vol. Dissertation! 9, s.v. shura.  M. Bernard, The Encyclopedia of Islam (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960), vol. 3, s.v. Genetics Prompts! idjma.  Joseph Schacht, The Encyclopedia of Islam (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960), vol. Legislation! 3, s.v. idjtihad.
 Robin B. Wright, The Last Great Revolution : Turmoil and Transformation in Iran (London: Vintage, 2001), pp. 256-73, 292-9.  Robin B. Jealousy Essay! Wright, Islam and Liberal Democracy: Two Visions of Reformation, Journal of Democracy , Apr. 1996, pp. 65-7.  John Voll, Islam: Continuity and Change in Modern World (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1994), pp. Legislation! 378-87.  Soroush among Those For and Against, interview, Jameah (Tehran), June 16, 17, 1998; John L. Esposito and John O. Voll, Makers of Contemporary Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), ch. 7.  Abdol Karim Soroush, Reason, Freedom, and Democracy in essay prompts Islam: Essential Writings of Abdolkarim Soroush (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 123-55.  New York: Farrar, Straus Giroux, 2003.
 Oxford: Oxford University Press.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.  Feldman, After Jihad , pp. Business! 222-7; ‘Islamic Democracy' in a New Iraq: An Interview with Noah Feldman, Frontline , Public Broadcasting Service, Sept. 30, 2003.
 Feldman, After Jihad , p. 182.  Feldman, After Jihad , pp. 210-21, 228-30, 234.  ‘Islamic Democracy' in a New Iraq: An Interview with Noah Feldman.  New York: Praeger, 1998.  New York: Praeger, 2005.  Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996).  Hunter, The Future of white discourse essays, Islam and the West , pp. 19-28, 106-14.  Anna Jordan, The Principles of Western Democracy and Islam, Submissions.org, Dec.1998, accessed Nov.
17, 2006.  William Ebenstein and Edwin Fogelman, Today's Isms: Communism, Fascism, Capitalism (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1980), pp. Dissertation! 170-8.  Qur'an 2:190-3; 2:215; 2:272; 3:26; 3:159; 3:195; 4:49-50; 4:52-3; 4:73; 4:71; 4:76; 4:100; 4:135; 9:20; 9:120; 10:98-9; 17:36; 17:53; 25:55; 31:18-9; 38:22-4; 38:26; 42:38; 45:18; 49:11-3.  Gudrun Kramer, Islamic Notions of Democracy, Middle East Report , July-August 1993.  Faris Jedaane, Notions of the State in Contemporary Arab Political Writings, in G. Jealousy Essay! Luciani, ed., The Arab State (London: Routledge, 1990), pp. 247-83; Hamid Enayat, Modern Islamic Political Thought (Austin: University of business, Texas Press, 1982), pp. 69-139.  Ahmad, Islam: Its Meaning and jealousy essay, Message , pp. Dissertation Business Legislation! 159-61.  Richard Mitchell, The Society of the Muslim Brothers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), pp.
209-94.  Hasan al-Banna, Five Tracts of Hasan al-Banna (Berkeley: California University Press, 1978), pp. 142-54.  Sayyid Qutb, Ma'alim ‘alal-Tariq (Karachi: International Islamic publishers, 1988), pp. 73-8, 80-1, 112; Sayed Khatab, The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb: The Theory of Jahiliyah (London: Routledge, 2006).  Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Political Theory of how to a working research paper, Islam (Lahore: Islamic Publications, 1976), pp. 13, 15-7, 38, 75-82.
 Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Suicide of Western Civilization, in Wakar Ahmad Gardezi and dissertation, Abdul Wahid Khan, eds., West versus Islam (New Delhi: International Islamic Publishers, 1992), pp. Jealousy Essay! 61-73.  Geneive Abdo, No God but God: Egypt and the Triumph of Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 107-36.  Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), Special Dispatch Series , no. 1285, Sept.
8, 2006.  Samuel P. Huntington, Will More Countries Become Democratic? Political Science Quarterly, Summer 1984, p. 214; Gilles Kepel, The Revenge of God (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994), p. 194.  Bernard Lewis, Islam and Liberal Democracy: A Historical Overview, Journal of Democracy , Apr. 1996, p. 52.
 Hisham Sharabi, Neopatriarchy: A Theory of Distorted Change in Arab Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 136.  Esposito and Voll, Islam and Democracy , p. 31. Related Topics: Democracy and dissertation business legislation, Islam, Islam, Middle East politics | David Bukay | Spring 2007 MEQ receive the latest by email: subscribe to the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is presented as an integral whole with complete and accurate information provided about its author, date, place of publication, and original URL.
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Chemistry/ Chemical Reaction term paper 15274. Chemical reactions are the heart of chemistry. People have always known that they exist. The Ancient Greeks were the firsts to speculate on the composition of matter. Legislation! They thought that it was possible that individual particles made up matter. Later, in the Seventeenth Century, a German chemist named Georg Ernst Stahl was the first to on mercy, postulate on chemical reaction, specifically, combustion. He said that a substance called phlogiston escaped into the air from all substances during combustion. He explained that a burning candle would go out if a candle snuffer was put over it because the air inside the snuffer became saturated with phlogiston.
According to his ideas, wood is made up of dissertation business, phlogiston and ash, because only ash is left after combustion. His ideas soon came upon of michigan essay, some contradiction. When metal is burned, its ash has a greater mass than the original substance. Stahl tried to cover himself by saying that phlogiston will take away from a substance's mass or that it had a negative mass, which contradicted his original theories. In the Eighteenth Century Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, in France, discovered an important detail in the understanding of the legislation chemical reaction combustion, oxigine (oxygen). He said that combustion was a chemical reaction involving oxygen and jealousy essay another combustible substance, such as wood. John Dalton, in the early Nineteenth Century, discovered the atom. It gave way to the idea that a chemical reaction was actually the rearrangement of groups of atoms called molecules. Dalton also said that the appearance and disappearance of properties meant that the atomic composition dictated the appearance of different properties. He also came up with idea that a molecule of one substance is exactly the business legislation same as any other molecule of the same substance.
People like Joseph-Lois Gay-Lussac added to Dalton's concepts with the jealousy essay postulate that the volumes of gasses that react with each other are related (14 grams of nitrogen reacted with exactly three grams of hydrogen, eight grams of oxygen reacted to exactly one gram of hydrogen, etc.) Amedeo Avogadro also added to the understanding of chemical reactions. He said that all gasses at the same pressure, volume and temperature contain the same number of particles. Business! This idea took a long time to be accepted. On Mercy Petition! His ideas lead to the subscripts used in the formulas for gasses. From the work of these and many other chemists, we now have a mostly complete knowledge of chemical reactions. Business! There are now many classification systems to classify the different types of reactions.
These include decomposition, polymerization, chain reactions, substitution reactions, elimination reactions, combination reactions, ionic reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Decomposition reactions are reactions in which a substance breaks into smaller parts. As an example, ammonium carbonate will decompose into write a working research paper, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and dissertation legislation water. Polymerization reactions are reactions in which simpler substances combine to form a complex substance. The thing that makes this reaction unusual is university of michigan that the dissertation business legislation final product is composed of hundreds of the simpler reagent (a substance that contributes to a chemical reaction) species. One example is the polymerization of terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol to form the polymer called Dacron, a fibre, or Mylar, in sheet form. In this reaction n is a large number of moles. A chain reaction is a series of smaller reactions in which the previous reaction forms a reagent for the next reaction. The synthesis of hydrogen bromide is a good example: This is a simple equation that doesn't properly prove the reaction.
It is essay petition very complex and starts with this: The next three reactions are related and should be grouped together. A substitution, or single and double replacement reactions, is a reaction in which ionic compounds react with an element or another compund to form new ionic compounds. Here is an dissertation, example of single-replacement when chlorine gas reacts with aqueous sodium bromide: Cl2(g) + 2NaBr(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(l) A double-replacement reaction between barium chloride and potassium carbonate looks like this: BaCl2(aq) + K2CO3(aq) 2KCl(aq) + BaCO3(s)
An elimination reaction is a reaction in which a compound is broken into smaller parts when heated. Here is an example when the same substance is heated and goes through another reaction: 2CHClF2 -* C2F4 + 2HCl. A combination reaction occurs when two or more reactants form a single product. These are grouped into five different categories. One of these categories is associated with the combination of a nonmetal and a nonmetal to form a molecular compound. Another states that when a nonmetal oxide combines with water to make an acid. On Mercy! For instance when sulfur trioxide and business water react sulfuric acid is made: SO3(s) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) Another reaction is called an ionic reaction.
It occurs between two ions and can happen very quickly. For example, when silver nitrate and sodium chloride are mixed you get silver chloride: AgNO3 + NaCl -* AgCl + NaNO3. The last type of reaction is called oxidation-reduction. These are reactions that involve a change in oxidation number. It is an oxidizing reaction if the a working thesis for a oxidation number goes up. It is a reduction reaction if the oxidation number goes down. These two reactions only happen together. The number of legislation, electrons remains the same from start to finish in a redox reaction. This is an example of an unbalanced redox equation:
Fe2+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) Fe3+(aq) + Mn2+(aq) It is now known that there are three types of how to write a working, chemical reactions. Dissertation Business Legislation! They are classified into three types: exoergic (exothermic), endoergic (endothermic), and aergic (athermic). In these cases, energy is supplied, but the different types of reactions initiate the energy differently. Exoergic, or exothermic, reactions release energy during the reaction.
Combustion is one of the major reactions that do this. The burning of jealousy essay, wood, or any other fuel, gives off heat, and business the burning of glucose in our bodies gives off both energy and heat. Endoergic, or endothermic, reactions absorb energy during the reaction. The melting of an ice cube is an example of an endothermic reaction. Aergic, or athermic, reactions neither give off nor absorb energy.
There are very few cases in which this happens. There are some things that must be considered in a chemical reaction. Igcse Assignment 3! Kinetics is one of these things. Kinetics decides The speed of the reaction and what is happening on a molecular level. There are a few things that decide the course and speed of the reaction. The first thing is the reactants. Dissertation Business! Different reactants react at different speeds.
Even the tropics essays position of the reactants will affect the reaction rate. Concentration can have a major impact on reaction rate; the more reactants the faster the rate. Also, if the dissertation business legislation surface area of how to a working paper, substances is increased, for dissertation business legislation instance grinding a metal into powder, will speed up a reaction. Catalysts contribute a needed substance to the reaction to control the how to thesis for a paper reaction rate. They are responsible for lowering the activation energy. The catalyst is an outside substance that is included in business the reaction, but is not consumed during the reaction like the reactants are. They cannot make impossible reactions occur, they only contribute to the reaction to white discourse, increase the reaction rate. There are also such things as negative catalysts, or inhibitors. Inhibitors retard the reaction rate. Dissertation Business! This is also a way to control reactions.
A good example in nature of a catalyst is in a firefly. The reaction that releases the light is of michigan essay complex. Business Legislation! Lucifern, which the firefly makes naturally, is oxidized in university of michigan supplement the presence of luciferase, another natural enzyme, which acts as a catalyst in the reaction. Thus, the reaction makes an dissertation business, excited form of university supplement 2, luciferase, which soon returns to its original state. Energy as light is released when the lucifrase returns to dissertation, its normal state. The insect can easily control this reaction with an inhibitor it naturally makes. Another contributor in this consideration is entropy.
It is the measure of how to thesis paper, energy not available for work in the reaction that becomes energy moved to disorder. Entropy is dissertation legislation simply a measurement of unusable energy in a closed thermodynamic system. An acid and base reaction is another thing to consider. Acids and bases react very readily to each other. When an acid and a base react, they form water and a salt. Acids and bases neutralize each other and form a salt as a byproduct. This reaction reaches what is called equilibria, (When a substance is completely neutral in a working thesis research paper charge and acidity). One example of dissertation, how acids and bases react is the genetics essay reaction of calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid to produce calcium phosphate and water: 3Ca(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 -* Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2O.
The last detail is the reaction conditions. The temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure will affect the reaction. Even a slight change in any one of these could change the legislation reaction. Heating a reaction causes the particles to move faster, leading to more collisions and speeding the reaction. There are many branches of university of michigan supplement essay 2, Chemistry that use chemical reactions, infact, almost all of them.
For example, Photochemistry is one branch of chemistry that deals with chemical reactions. It has to do with the radiant energy of all kinds formed during chemical reactions. Photochemists will experiment with chemical reactions. They will perform reactions normally only business, possible at high temperatures in room temperature under ultra-violet radiation. The reaction rate can be controlled for language assignment 3 observation by varying the intensity of the radiation. X-rays and gamma rays are commonly used in these procedures. Business Legislation! The most important photochemical reaction is photosynthesis. Carbon-dioxide and water combine with chlorophyll as a catalyst to give off oxygen. Photochemical reactions are caused by photons that are given off by how to a working thesis for a research paper, the light source. The reactant molecules absorb the business legislation photons and get excited. They are at such an excited state, they can decompose, ionize, cause a reaction with other molecules, or give off heat.
Another science that uses chemical reactions is Biochemistry. They use them to jealousy essay, produce products that a person either can't produce or cannot do as well as they should. The best example of dissertation, this the discourse essays production of insulin. It was first produced in legislation very tiny beads until someone realized that the body does in a very similar way. The person was Robert B. Merrifeild. He was the first to urge scientists to study living systems for genetics prompts the answers to problems that could be solved with synthesizing chemical reactions in the body.
This was actually the dissertation legislation first step toward the development of bionics. Scientists today are still toying with chemical reactions. They are trying to jealousy essay, control them with lasers. Scientists are trying to use lasers to prod a chemical reaction that could go one way or another, the way they want it to. They want to direct the molecules in one direction. The control of photons to dissertation, excite molecules and cause reactions has been elusive.
Recently, though, chemist Robert J. Gordon at the University of Illinois achieved coherent phase control of hydrogen disulfide molecules by a working thesis research, firing ultraviolet lasers of different wavelengths at them. Laser chemistry looks promising and is a way that chemistry is legislation still being expanded. Again, chemical reactions are the main part of a branch of chemistry. Here again, scientists are playing with chemical reactions. In April of white essays, 1995, a chemist named Peter Schultz and a physicist named Paul McEuen of the University of California at Berkeley announced that they could control chemical reactions molecule by molecule. Dissertation Legislation! The key to the technique is to put a dab of thesis for a research paper, platinum on the microscopic tip of an atomic force microscope. (The tip of dissertation, such a microscope is a tiny cantilever that rides like a phonograph needle just above the surface of a sample and reacts to forces exerted by the electrons beneath it.) The Platinum acts like a catalyst, stimulating a reaction between two reactants, just stimulating a reaction one molecule at a time. Jealousy Essay! The molecules are stimulated in a pattern giving the desired results. This discovery opens doors for nanoengineering and material sciences. Legislation! It gives a good view of what happens, one molecule at a time.
Chemical reactions are a large part of chemistry. Learning more about them can have a tremendous effect on write for a paper, what scientists can do in the future. Dissertation Business Legislation! By studying how to manipulate them to make certain products that could revolutionize the jealousy essay world. · Chemical Reactions, Encyclopedia Brittanica MACROPEDIA, 1995, Vol. 15. · Eastman, Richard H., General Chemistry: Experimental and Theory, Holt, Rhinehart, and dissertation legislation Winston Inc., 1970. · One Molecule at a Time, Discover, January 1996. · Pauling, Linus and Peter, Chemistry , W. H. Freeman and Co., 1975. · Reactions, Chemical, Encyclopedia Americana, 1982, Vol.
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