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Boserup’s Theory on igcse language coursework assignment, Technological Change as a Point of Departure for the Theory of Sociometabolic Regime Transitions. Essay On Leadership! This chapter is devoted to igcse coursework, the core theoretical propositions unfolded in E. Boserup’s 1981 book Population and Technological Change and represents an attempt to thesis defense powerpoints, take these ideas further. The 1981 book makes an assignment 3, effort to provide a theoretical explanation for the full course of good reflective introduction, human history, from hunting and gathering communities through various stages of agricultural societies right into the industrial transformation. First we re-examine her own data, confirming her core thesis about average agricultural output per area risingwith population density at the expense of igcse english 3, declining output per labour hour, but demonstrating a strong discontinuity at the industrial end of her technology scale.Clearly, what is measured at this end, the transition to fossil fuel use in agriculture, leads to bind, saving labour. Second, we explain our theory of sociometabolic regime transitions and try to show how much this theory learned from Boserup. This theory, though, supposes that it makes a fundamental difference if societies base practically all of their processes on solar energy, its conversion into plant biomass and, consequently, on agriculture as the key energy supply sector, or if they base their processes on fossil fuel energy sources – this is a qualitative leap beyond what Boserup introduces as gradual distinctions. In a third part, based on igcse english language assignment 3, our comparative research on resource use, we elaborate on three examples for the lasting validity of Boserup’s arguments: on the non-linearity between population growth and good introduction, land requirements, on coursework assignment, the transferability of this thesis to other resources as well, and finally on the persistent relevance of population density as key factor allowing for lower resource consumption. This chapter confirms Boserup’s role as an eminent theorist and analyst of the bind your dissertation london, development trajectory of agrarian societies, but also points to her weakness in understanding the industrial transformation. Ester Boserup’s 1965 book The Conditions of Agricultural Growth was well received and resonated deeply (Boserup 1965 ). In contrast, Boserup’s most mature and comprehensive book, 1981’s Population and language assignment 3, Technological Change: A study of Long-Term Trends (Boserup 1981 ), in on leadership, all its complexity, seems to have received less attention. This chapter is devoted to the core theoretical propositions unfolded in this 1981 book and represents an attempt to take these ideas further.

In her work Population and Technological Change , Boserup not only had the ambition to elaborate and generalise her ideas from 1965, she also made a number of attempts to explore the validity of her arguments using quantitative analysis. She did so mainly using national-level data (skilfully digging out the information on the few countries for which the data were available at the time), analysing the interrelations of her two main variables—population density presumably as the independent variable and technological change as the dependent variable—as well as the joint impact of both on other variables. This methodological approach that she helped pioneer is still very common, particularly in the context of igcse english language coursework assignment 3, reports from international organizations, but the genetics essay, data situation has, of course, much improved since. What we attempt to show in this chapter is not only that the theory of sociometabolic regime transitions genuinely builds upon Boserupian foundations (even if it contradicts her preoccupation with gradualism) but also that data generated in the context of material and energy flow accounting (Haberl et al. Coursework Assignment 3! 2004 ) are very suitable for putting her key propositions to legislation, empirical tests. 3.2 Boserup’s Main Theoretical Propositions, and her Efforts at an Empirical Proof. In the preface, Boserup ( 1981 ) describes the claims of english coursework 3, this book in relation to her book on the conditions of agricultural growth (1965). Because the latter focuses only on agricultural technology, it had to good reflective essay, “abstain from the analysis of the effects of technological change on population change. It therefore discussed only the effects of population change, not its causes. This book deals with all types of population-linked technologies, and I have made an igcse language coursework assignment, attempt to deal with both sides of the powerpoints, interrelationship.” (Boserup 1981 , p. ix) Her later book, she says, has a broader scope; whereas the earlier book focuses exclusively on agricultural societies, the later volume also deals briefly with pre-agricultural communities and, in much more detail, with societies in early stages of industrialization.

However, even in the later book, she makes “no attempt to english coursework 3, discuss the most recent technological innovations in the highly industrialised societies.” (Boserup 1981 , p. Essay On Leadership! x) “This book is not a revision of The Conditions of Agricultural Growth ,” Boserup points out, “but only an attempt to broaden and deepen it.” Discussing the criticisms she received for her previous work, she self-confidently asserts “that I was on assignment 3, the right track and have nothing to regret, so far as the theory is concerned” (ibid.). In other words, the 1981 book makes an effort to provide a theoretical explanation for the full course of human history, from hunting and gathering communities through various stages of agricultural societies right into the industrial transformation. Science Is A Essay! Its overall structure complies with this ambition: a chapter on the theoretical framework is followed by a historical chapter on igcse language coursework 3, population and technology in the ancient world . She then discusses the role of bind dissertation, demographic factors in European development and the diffusion of industrial technologies. Finally, she deals with demographic transition and technological change in the Third World. Her basic theoretical framework for the core interrelation between demographic dynamics and technological development reads as follows (Boserup 1981 , p. English Language Coursework! 5 ff.): Inventions, or the acceptance of spreading inventions, have a strong demand component, and rapid population growth can generate such a demand.

Thus, population change induces inventions and technological change and your dissertation london, also facilitates technological change: more people available make doing things differently possible. There is also a feedback loop in that technological change leads to further population change. Increased population density in an area has a dual effect on the availability of life-sustaining natural resources: On the one hand, it makes life easier because it allows for burden sharing in accessing these resources. On the other hand, in the long run, the ratio of english coursework 3, natural resources to the population decreases. “One or the other tendency may prevail” (Boserup 1981 , p. Defense Powerpoints! 5). As a result of both tendencies, an increase in population density “provides an incentive to replace natural resources by labour and capital” (Boserup 1981 , p. 6). These are the key theoretical propositions that lead her through the rich material throughout her book. Igcse Language Coursework! She operationally defines her key variables: population density and technological change. Both variables are measured at a national level, using the few internationally available data of her time. Density is fairly straightforward: she defines 10 density classes (in persons per science is a bane essay, km 2 each distinguished from the next by igcse language assignment, factor 2: 0–1, 1–2, 2–4, 4–8 … 128–256, 256) that she will later group together. Thesis Powerpoints! Next, she specifies technological levels (Boserup 1981 , p. 12 ff.).

Among the indicators she uses, per capita energy consumption (in coal equivalents), which can be considered practically equivalent to the amount of assignment 3, fossil fuel use, comes first. Next is the number of science essay, telephones per 1,000 inhabitants (again in its dependency upon electricity bound to language, fossil fuel use), an dissertation legislation, indicator of extending communication beyond the local community and of interconnectedness. Average life expectancy, as an indicator of language, health infrastructure, food supply and literacy rates, rounds out the set. She ranks the science bane, countries by each indicator, constructs an index in which each indicator carries equal weight, and finally puts the countries into 5 groups by the resulting index, with each group containing an equal number of countries (for the year 1970) (Fig. Igcse English Coursework! 3.1 ). Indicator values by technology level. Business! (According to Boserup 1981 , p. 13, Table 2.3; calculated as indices, value of igcse language assignment 3, technology level I = 1) Boserup presents the relation between indicators and science, technology groups in the form of igcse english coursework assignment, a table. In general, the technology groups exhibit a rise in life expectancy, literacy, and dissertation, “connectivity” from one group to english language assignment 3, the next using different levels of fossil fuel inputs.

What becomes much more apparent when presented graphically is the bane essay, relative homogeneity of technology groups I–III according to these indicators. Then, there is an increase through group IV to igcse english coursework assignment 3, group V clearly related to student essay, fossil energy use. Thus, what she shows here are not the english language coursework assignment, subtle differences within the legislation, agrarian regime that were her original focus (differentiation by fallow periods and gradual intensification of land use) but the progressive use of igcse english language, fossil fuels as a source of energy. 1. In her next step, she puts her core hypothesis of 1965, that high population density, far from making people starve, moves them in a position to advance technologically, to a test with these data. The results (see graph in essay on leadership, Fig. 3.2 ) do not convince her.

She feels there is no longer as close a correlation as between population density and high technological levels as “there seems to have been before the industrial revolution” (Boserup 1981 , p. 14), but even now she sees a pronounced inverse relationship only happening rarely, recognizing that “it became possible for igcse language assignment 3, a sparsely populated area by very rapid technological development to become the leading industrial nation in dissertation legislation, little more than a century.” (Boserup 1981 , p. 144) Population density and technological level in 1970 ( 100 countries). (According to Boserup 1981 , p. 14, Table 2.5; technology groups as in original) Clearly, the igcse english language assignment, proportion of high-density countries is highest among the essay prompts, top technology group, but the proportion of low-density countries does not continuously decline with technological advancement—there must be other factors involved as well. The issue could be resolved more easily if she drew a theoretical dividing line between population dynamics and technological advancement under agrarian regime conditions, where her hypothesis is highly plausible and corresponds very well to historical observation, and the roles of population dynamics under industrializing and industrial conditions that are somehow qualitatively different. 2. Even the findings concerning her core thesis that average agricultural output per english, area rises in dependency upon population density at the expense of declining output per labour hour confirm her theory, but still there is a strong discontinuity with technology level V, the industrial end of the scale (see Fig. 3.3 ). The overall effect of density ( a ), and technology ( b ) on output. (According to Boserup 1981 , p. 27, Table 3.13); number of countries per cell very small (1–4) Yield per worker does not depend much on population density but strongly depends on technology. Density plays a role only in technology group V (with output per worker declining as predicted). Clearly, what this technology scale measures, i.e., transition to fossil fuel use, reflects itself in an emphasis on saving labour. From multivariate and bivariate perspectives (Fig. 3.3 ), one sees output per hectare rise with population density and output per worker decline. Reflective Essay! This finding confirms Boserup’s core theoretical assumption. However, with technology groups, the old assumption does not hold; both output per hectare and output per worker increase with the technological level because a technological level is not defined as improved technology within agricultural society but as the degree of transition towards the use of fossil fuels.

Why does Ester Boserup not draw a dividing line between systems functioning differently, as she herself repeatedly recognises? She clearly disapproved of the arrogance of igcse language coursework 3, modernist exceptionalism in bringing technological innovation and change to “traditional” communities that would otherwise be static. For this reason, perhaps, she opposed the dichotomous distinction of “modern” and “traditional” altogether and introduced a much richer set of qualitative distinctions of food supply systems, differentiated by what she considers the decisive variable for land use intensity: fallow periods (Boserup 1965 , p. Business Legislation! 15 f., 1981, p. 18 f.). This line of english language assignment, reasoning was highly innovative vis-a-vis the simplistic distinctions of good reflective essay, classical political economy between cultivated land and unused land and the derived processes of english coursework 3, extension (cultivating additional land) and intensification (increasing output) and was inspirational for legislation, contemporary land use science (see Chap. 5 by Erb et al. in this volume). Nevertheless, it still shares with the classics a particular blind spot: an unawareness of the crucial role of igcse coursework assignment 3, sources of your, energy. For her, contrary to mainstream thinking, tools and their improvement, as well as input factors such as fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides, play a secondary role. Igcse 3! Her core argument, simplified, is that population growth increases density and makes it necessary to find ways to use land more intensively, which is dissertation equivalent to reducing fallow periods (up to annual multicropping), which in turn drives technological development; solutions also rely on the availability of more people and more labour power. It makes a fundamental difference if societies base practically all of their processes on solar energy, its conversion into coursework assignment, plant biomass and, consequently, agriculture as the key energy supply sector, or if they base their processes on science is a bane, fossil fuel energy sources. In the first case, societies as a whole absolutely depend on a positive high EROI (energy return upon energy investment 3 ) from agriculture, and if it is igcse english coursework low, such societies are constrained in their complexity.

In the second case, they can afford to subsidise agriculture energetically. For agriculture, the essay introduction, subject of much of Boserup’s writing, this makes a huge difference, a qualitative leap beyond what she introduces as gradual distinctions. In the english language, following paragraph, we will explain how we, building upon Boserup’s ideas, argue the need for drawing a qualitative distinction between what we call agrarian and industrial sociometabolic regimes. 3.3 Understanding Qualitative Change: Sociometabolic Regimes. The metabolism of all pre-industrial societies is based on the use of biomass and thus upon the ability of plant organisms to utilise solar energy via photosynthesis to create energy-rich material from carbon dioxide, water and mineral compounds. In the form of nutrition and animal feed, biomass provides the energetic basis for sustaining the defense, existence of humans and their livestock and can be converted into mechanical energy. Combustion (burning fuelwood, for igcse language assignment 3, example) provides space and process heating for domestic households (cooking), mining (metal smelting) and light. The conversion of heat into mechanical energy was not possible prior to the invention of the steam engine; thus, the availability of mechanical energy was subject to strict limitations. Good Reflective Essay Introduction! Water and wind power play an important yet very much subordinate role in language assignment 3, terms of quantity.

With few exceptions, 4 biomass was by far the most important energy source until the industrial revolution, generally accounting for 99 % of all available primary energy. Student Essay On Leadership! The production of english language coursework, available energy is based upon the controlled transformation of good reflective essay, ecosystems by labour with the aim of increasing the utilisable yield of biomass; i.e., upon igcse english coursework assignment 3 the colonisation of nature. The basic precondition for thesis, this form of english language coursework assignment, subsistence is that a positive energy yield (EROI) is obtained from agrarian activity; through agrarian land-use, significantly more energy in the form of biomass must be produced than is expended in good reflective introduction, the form of human labour (and prerequisite energetic expenditures such as nutrition). It has been estimated that in Central Europe before the beginning of industrialisation in the agrarian economy, an EROI of c. 10 to 1 was achieved (Krausmann 2004 ; Leach 1976 ). Any surplus may be used to language coursework, supply the non-agrarian sectors of genetics, society—that is, to provide nutrition and fuelwood for urban centres, as well as feed for the draught animals that have to transport all this material. The higher the surplus, the more complex the possible societal structures become. English! However, this surplus is never particularly high because a system must be very well organised for the work of 10 farm families to be able to sustain more than 1–2 other households (such as aristocratic landowners, craftspeople or bureaucrats). Under the agrarian regime, reactions to increases in good essay introduction, food demand, which are usually caused by population growth, initially involve expanding the area dedicated to agrarian production—and this may often lead to attempts to capture new territories. As a last resort, where land is scarce and territory limited, the option remains to apply a greater investment of labour to the same land area with the aim of achieving a greater yield, in english, other words, the intensification of land-area use. However, the yield per invested hour of labour declines as intensity of use increases and asymptotically approaches a physical limitation, from which point there is no benefit to be achieved by further intensification.

In other words, growth is possible but leads to a diminishing marginal utility of labour. When this limit is reached, we find the dissertation business legislation, “typical” picture of agrarian societies, in which the majority of the population, including children, incessantly performs demanding physical work while still suffering from shortages of essential resources. English! This logic, which Ester Boserup has studied on a worldwide basis and of which she provides a detailed description, represents a fundamental limitation of societal development in agrarian regimes: as a rule, growth in this regime eventually leads, despite progress made regarding methods of husbandry and plant cultivation, to the stagnating or even diminishing availability of per student essay, capita material and energy resources. Furthermore, the absence of the possibility to transform heat energy into mechanical work limits the degrees of freedom. Mechanical work can only be performed through the physical work of humans, animals and igcse english coursework assignment 3, water/wind energy; thus, the productivity that was thereby attainable remained relatively low. 5 Altogether, the size and structure of societal metabolism and its spatial differentiation were subject to limitation through the controlled solar energy system. In Europe, before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, 2–4 t of raw material and 30–70 gigajoules (GJ) 6 of primary energy were appropriated per capita and bind your, year, whereby biomass accounted for over 80 % of all material and 95 % of all energy inputs: food for english coursework, human populations, livestock feed and wood for construction and bind dissertation, fuel.

Regional differences in igcse language, metabolism were related in particular to the varying relevance of holding livestock and climatic conditions. 7. Starting in seventeenth century England, increased use of coal led to the development of a new energy system. At the core of this energy transition was a transition from the defense powerpoints, use of energy flows with low power density in the form of biomass that is language coursework regrown annually to the exploitation of large-scale energy deposits that had accumulated over geological eras and existed in a concentrated form as coal, with a high power density (Smil 2003 ). Initially, coal was used solely as an often quite unpopular fuel for stoves in the households of legislation, manufacturing workers in urban centres, whose increasing requirements could not be supplied by fuelwood alone. Fortunately, coal supplies in England were found close to these centres, and coal could also be transported at low cost via waterways. 8. In nearly all other world regions, by contrast, only regional urban-industrial centres were affected by this metabolic transition. Accordingly, the average per capita coal use remained negligible in countries such as India, China or Brazil even at the beginning of the twentieth century, comprising far less than 100 kg/capita and year. Indeed, the European countries that were in the process of igcse english coursework assignment 3, industrialising had an active interest in using colonialism to bind your dissertation, ensure that other world regions played a role as suppliers of cheap agricultural products and other raw materials, as well as outlet markets for growing industrial production and certainly not in allowing them to participate in english language coursework 3, industrial development themselves (see further discussion on this theme below). Later, steam engines enabled the conversion of coal into mechanical power, which led to a dramatic increase in the available capacity compared to what had existed under the previous regime. The possibility of extracting, transporting, processing and consuming materials underwent radical change, and an entirely new form of societal metabolism came into being as a result. In addition to biomass, huge quantities of bind your dissertation london, coal, construction materials and ore were extracted and processed. In the United Kingdom, materials used, for example, increased from igcse language assignment 3, 60 to 400 million tonnes per year between 1750 and dissertation london, 1900.

Population growth during this phase happened at a somewhat slower pace than the increase in material and energy use. For the first time in history, there was rapidly growing demand for non-agricultural workers. The mechanical performance of large coal-powered machines created conditions that produced an immense number of jobs required for final manufacturing. During this phase, although there was a rise in language 3, per capita material and energy consumption, it did not produce an increase in mass prosperity but was instead channelled into the expansion of the factory system and into exports. Coal represented a first important step towards emancipating the energy system from the land area and removing traditional limitations on economic growth. Rolf Peter Sieferle coined the vivid phrase “subterranean forest” for this phenomenon (Sieferle 1982 ). He showed that the energy (calorific value) contained in the amount of coal that was combusted annually in the United Kingdom by 1850 had already reached the equivalent of the fuelwood that could be produced from a virtual forest area the size of the entire country. By 1900, this amount had risen to thesis, an area equivalent to a subterranean forest covering four times the land area of the igcse coursework assignment 3, entire country (see Fig. 3.4 ). We may interpret this finding to good essay, mean that to maintain societal metabolism at the same level, the United Kingdom would have required a territory four times greater than its actual land area and entirely covered in forest for use. Coal use in the United Kingdom (UK) as virtual forest area. (Source: Krausmann and Fischer Kowalski 2012 , p. 346, according to Sieferle 1982 ). Note: To convert coal use into virtual forest area, it was assumed that a quantity of fuelwood with the equivalent energy content to the coal used can be provided through sustainable forest management (i.e., through the use of english coursework assignment 3, annual growth and not standing timber mass).

The forest area required to good introduction, produce this volume of igcse english language coursework 3, fuelwood is presented as a virtual forest area.) However, coal use did not remove all the limitations of the science is a, solar energy system. A very profound reliance upon the area-dependent resource of biomass remained in place: the need for igcse language coursework, nutrition. Access to more (technical) energy had not in any sense replaced human physical work but in fact had increased the science is a bane essay, demand for labour power in need of nutrition. In a similar way, the railway did not replace the need for draught and english assignment, working animals; on the contrary, the wide-meshed network of railway lines, in combination with an increase in transported goods and people, led to bind dissertation, an increasing demand for working animals. Stocks of draught animals grew continuously into the twentieth century. English Language Coursework Assignment! Similarly, coal did indeed provide a substitute for fuelwood, but more timber than ever before was required for building the railways and for the emerging paper industry. Altogether, the demand for biomass grew paradoxically alongside the transformation of the energy system to dissertation, feed people and animals and to supply new industries with raw material.

At the language coursework assignment 3, same time, the potential for expanding the cultivatable area was largely exhausted, and the means of raising area productivity were limited. The most important limitation was the thesis defense powerpoints, chronic shortage of fertiliser. English Language Assignment 3! Although mineral fertilisers, such as guano, Chile saltpetre and superphosphate, were increasingly used in agriculture by the end of the nineteenth century, the volumes employed were low and limited to defense, special crops such as oranges or tobacco and the supply of plant nutrients for most of the cultivated land still had to rely on farm-internal means (manure, leguminous crops, etc.). Thus, a fundamental limitation upon traditional agriculture remained in place, which, in spite of successful biological innovations such as new cultivated plants and language assignment 3, new land-use practices, led to stagnating grain yields in the nineteenth century. In the USA, a completely different development took place; a rapidly growing population but an extremely low population density of only 2 persons per reflective essay, km 2 meant that with the expansion of the railway system, huge swathes of fertile prairie land could be cultivated for food production. Within a few decades of homesteading, over 100 million ha of high-quality agricultural land were gained in english coursework assignment 3, the Midwestern USA between 1850 and 1920, after the indigenous peoples, with their extensive land-use practices, had been violently expelled (Cunfer 2005 ). The nutrient-rich soils of the science is a bane essay, Great Plains allowed for high initial yields with little labour input. The labour productivity of this system of language coursework, agriculture was extraordinarily high and enabled a small rural population to supply the defense powerpoints, densely populated urban centres on the coasts as well as to export large quantities of foodstuff to Europe. By around 1880, the USA was already exporting over 4 million tonnes of grain, providing basic nutrition for over 20 million people (Krausmann and Cunfer 2009 ). Not only the agrarian productivity of a pioneer country but also another resource—oil—positioned the USA to become the leading nation during the next phase of the industrial transformation (Fig.

3.5 ). Language Assignment 3! The establishment of new energy sources in the United Kingdom (1870–2006) ( a ), and on leadership, the United States (1750–2000) ( b ). (Data sources: Authors’ calculations based on Schandl and Krausmann 2007 , p. 97 (United Kingdom), and IEA 2008 ; Krausmann et al. 2009 ; Podobnik 1999 ). Note: In this diagram, the share of the total primary energy supply, represented by the three fractions of biomass, coal and oil/natural gas (including other energy forms), is depicted. The biomass fraction includes all biomass used as food for humans and livestock and biomass used for all other purposes, together with fuelwood. As shown, in the nineteenth century, the english language 3, USA was able to good, effectively compensate the english language 3, weaknesses of the English transformation model (i.e., difficulties in producing sufficient food for a high-density and introduction, growing population) and to turn this to its advantage. However, it became clear that this level of agricultural productivity had no long-term potential and after only a few decades, ran up against massive ecological limitations. The combination of igcse english language assignment, large land areas with a low investment of labour was only good reflective possible because the prairie soil, then being ploughed for the first time, contained huge reservoirs of igcse english language assignment, plant nutrients accumulated over a long historical period.

These reservoirs, however, quickly began to deplete in the first decades of ploughing. The yields began to decrease, and enormous problems with erosion appeared (Cunfer 2005 ). However, in a situation where oil could be obtained cheaply and with a bundle of technologies coupled to this new energy source, a new and reflective essay, successful agricultural model was possible. The tractor allowed for the substitution of all animal labour and a large proportion of human labour in agriculture, much as the motor saw raised the speed of tree-felling in comparison with the axe by a factor of 100–1,000 (and thus enabled the rapid deforestation of the language coursework, rainforests). The agrochemical industry, based on petroleum and natural gas, helped to bane, lift the igcse english language coursework assignment 3, chronic limitations on plant nutrients from which agriculture was suffering. Student Essay On Leadership! From the 1920s onwards, huge amounts of atmospheric nitrogen were made available for agricultural use using the Haber-Bosch process, which requires a high energy input (Smil 2001 ). The average nitrogen application in crop farming increased to several 100 kg/ha as a result. Together with industrial potassium, phosphate fertilisers, pesticides and successes in plant and livestock breeding, area yields and labour productivity in agriculture were amplified within a very short space of time (Grigg 1992 ). Starting in the USA and disseminated by igcse language assignment 3, agricultural companies active on the global market, these new agricultural methods were spread around the student on leadership, world under the coursework 3, term green revolution . Thesis Defense! 9 They found application in igcse english coursework 3, Europe after World War II. As a result, the proportion of the population engaged in reflective essay introduction, agriculture fell to igcse english assignment, 5 % or less. Defense Powerpoints! The green revolution also took hold in large sectors of agriculture in the southern hemisphere and helped create conditions in igcse english language 3, which global food production was able to keep pace with the quadrupling of the world population in the twentieth century. The industrialisation of agriculture required a massive transformation of the agrarian landscape, which had to be rendered suitable for machine activity. This transformation led to a range of specific environmental problems. The position of agriculture in societal metabolism and science is a bane essay, the energy system changed fundamentally.

Industrialised agriculture requires a high energy input, and today, more energy is invested in agricultural production than is subsequently obtained in the form of food, which is partly due to the large quantity of high-quality agricultural produce that is 3 fed to livestock. In general, agriculture has been altered during the course of the sociometabolic transformation from being the most important source of useful energy to dissertation legislation, becoming an energy sink (Pimentel and english assignment 3, Pimentel 1979 ). With the industrial transformation, society has made itself dependent on abundant external energy sources for the most important part of its metabolism, namely, the feeding of its population. This industrial stage of agriculture does not comply with Boserup’s theory of genetics prompts, population growth driving technological innovation and leading to a substitution of igcse coursework assignment 3, natural resources by is a bane essay, labour and capital. Bringing a completely new natural resource into english coursework 3, play introduces a completely new pattern. 3.4 Examples of Later Research Findings that Could Have Been Anticipated from Boserup’s Theory. 3.4.1 Example 1: On the Non-Linearity Between Population and Land Requirement. One of Boserup’s core ideas is inspirational: the anti-Malthusian message of a non-linear relationship between the is a bane essay, (growing) number of people and land requirement, with the key intervening variable being the intensification of use.

This proposition held on a global level throughout the twentieth century (Fig. 3.6 ). One must assume, though, that generating more output on the same cropland was achieved by different methods before and after the green revolution , with its fossil fuel-based inputs and igcse english language, tools. Whereas before the green revolution , the mechanisms described in Boserup ( 1965 ), namely reduced fallow periods and, in bind dissertation london, extreme cases, shifting to multicropping, at the expense of increasing labour investment, presumably dominated and igcse language coursework assignment, achieved an increase in output that could not quite keep up with population growth (so that there still had to be a substantial expansion in cropland), after the green revolution (i.e., from the late 1950s onward), the defense, growth in english language 3, yields far exceeded the growth in cropland. In the most recent decades, however, yields have again grown at a slower pace than the student essay, world population (Fig. 3.7 ). Development of global cropped area, average crop yields per unit area and population in the twentieth century. Indexed Development from 1910 to coursework assignment, 2005 (1910 = 1) ( a ), and average annual growth rates for the period 1910–1950 and 1950–2005 ( b ). (Based on Krausmann et al.

2013 . Note: Since the science, green revolution , these changes have been achieved not by increasing human labour inputs (on the contrary, the number of people globally working in english coursework assignment, agriculture has decreased) but by increasing labour input in genetics, its technical form, namely direct or indirect energy input on the basis of fossil fuels. Global trends in agricultural inputs 1961–2005. (Source: FAO 2007 ; IEA 2008 . Note: The number of tractors is a conservative estimate for the input of labour, as the size of igcse english assignment, tractors has increased considerably since 1961.) During the genetics, heyday of the green revolution , the number of tractors increased two-and-a-half fold, and the use of mineral fertilisers increased fivefold. Igcse Language! Again, we see a structural break from the genetics essay, late 1980s onward in which these inputs have stagnated and the overall energy input in agriculture dropped and igcse english coursework assignment, has remained stable on a substantially lower level. If we relate this to the results shown in Fig. 3.8 , it is apparent that rises in crop yields and rises in bind your, fossil fuel-based inputs relate closely. No doubt this may change again in the future; the increasing prices of fossil fuels (and maybe even outright oil scarcity) and agricultural products may create a situation in which more labour-intensive forms of assignment, agriculture regain their place in society. Essay! Global primary energy use ( a ), and material use ( b ), 1900–2010. (Source: Krausmann et al. 2009 (data update 2011) One international mistake could have been avoided by looking more closely at Boserup’s works. The original global estimates of land available for biofuels (“unused land”) were much too high (Haberl et al. 2010 provide an igcse english coursework, excellent overview).

Boserup would have taught them that on defense powerpoints, this populated planet, there is no such thing as “unused land” (regardless of what it looks like on satellite images); the language coursework assignment, intensity of dissertation, land use is a matter of degree, with—for example—extensive pastures contributing essentially both to the nutrition of igcse coursework assignment, people and to the fertilization of their cropland. 3.4.2 Example 2: Generalizing the Thesis of Non-Linearity to Other Resources. An analogous argument may apply to the human use of other natural resources as well: although population numbers are one of the strongest drivers of the requirement of energy and essay, material resources, technological innovations allow, through increasing efficiency, a certain degree of non-linearity in this relationship. Under the agrarian sociometabolic regime (or agricultural societies, as Boserup would say), an increasing population density allowed for urbanization, and urbanization both offered the conditions for further technological development and required them (such as fortifications, new means of transport and transport infrastructures, new weapons, etc.). However, urbanization and a lifestyle beyond the daily toil of agriculture was clearly limited by the low agricultural surplus that could be taxed from peasants, limits to igcse english language coursework, transportation (land transport for bulky materials could only cover a few kilometres; ships were the only viable alternative), and limits to timber and fuel wood that used to be quickly exhausted in the vicinity of student on leadership, urban centres. (See part II in Boserup 1981 , pp. 15–92; see also Sieferle 1982 ) Thus, once the basic infrastructural investments were completed, the requirements of natural resources (food, feed, timber and fuelwood, fibres, clay, metals and language 3, mineral building materials) grew at most at good essay introduction, the pace of the igcse english language assignment 3, population and, one may speculate, maybe often below for scarcity and efficiency reasons.

There was a certain built-in mechanism for territories to grow but not a built-in mechanism for individual consumption to grow. 10. The situation is very different in the industrial sociometabolic regime. There, technological innovations mainly reduce labour requirements and drive income (Ayres and Warr 2009 ). The more resources for a certain service are saved through innovation, the science bane, more resources are consumed overall (Sorrell and igcse language assignment, Dimitropoulos 2008 ). During all of the twentieth century, marked by the expansion of the thesis, industrial regime, the global resource consumption of energy and all other materials increased much faster than the igcse language 3, already very steep rise of the world population (see Fig. 3.8 ). In effect, per capita consumption of natural resources almost tripled during this century, and it is good continuing to rise as the english assignment, industrial regime expands to more and more countries. All this could not have happened with biomass as the core source of energy.

Industrial agriculture uses large amounts of business legislation, fossils to boost annual harvests of net primary production by language coursework, an order of magnitude (Haberl et al. 2007 ). The rise of per capita energy and thesis powerpoints, materials consumption, i.e., the english assignment, non-linearity of resource requirements with elasticities above 1 in relation to population growth, is particularly pronounced in two phases (see Fig. 3.9 ). One phase is the period between the world economic crisis in 1930 and the first oil crisis in 1972—this is on leadership precisely the period of booming oil in the US, reconstruction after World War II in Europe, and the worldwide spread of the igcse english assignment, so-called green revolution in agriculture (Pimentel et. al 1973 ). The other phase has been visible on a global level since the business legislation, turn of the twenty-first century, but regionally started much earlier: the rapid industrial transformation, on a fossil fuel base, of a number of so-called emergent economies such as China, Brazil, Korea or India. Per capita global energy and materials use during the twentieth century. (Source: Krausmann et al. 2009 ) (data update 2011) The first decade of the new century was marked by a shift in resource prices; for igcse english, the first time in many decades, there was a steep trend upward (the long-term trend had always been declining) for oil and gas, cereals, and many metals and minerals. In the same decade, a major global financial crisis (which also exists today) and structural shifts in world trade occurred (Dittrich and Bringezu 2010 ). If Ester Boserup had had the chance to use these sociometabolic indicators for her analysis, what conclusions would she have come up with? Would she have been able to powerpoints, maintain her generally positive outlook on population growth and technological advancement? 3.4.3 Example 3: On the Role of Development and Population Density in Driving Resource Use. Igcse Language Coursework! Development, in bind, the sense of a transition from an agrarian to language coursework assignment, an industrial regime, implies a much more substantial increase in resource use than Boserup could be aware of.

On the basis of a number of historical and contemporary case studies, several authors (Haberl et al. 2011 ; Krausmann et al. 2008 ) published the thesis defense powerpoints, following estimates (Table 3.1 ). Primary energy use 11 per capita has increased by igcse english language, a factor between 3 and 5, far beyond the range of any agrarian society; biomass use, although absolutely not decreasing, only good reflective introduction supplies 10–30 % of the energy used. The same holds true for materials use—with the energy available, 3–5 times as much material can be mobilised. In addition, the fraction of the population working in agriculture has decreased from above 80 % to less than 10 %. With the demographic transitions that have come along, population density has increased 3- to 10-fold, leading to a very strong increase in the impact (or, rather, pressure) of humans per english language coursework assignment, unit area. The Boserupian idea that humans, specifically because of a higher density (and therefore rising collaboration and inventiveness), could be able to buffer the genetics prompts, negative impacts of english assignment, their increasingly intensive use upon the environment was partly true as far as local and regional impacts in rich countries are concerned but not on a global or long-term scale. Comparing the agrarian and the industrial regime: Population density, per capita resource use and agricultural population. (Source: Krausmann et al. 2008 ) Energy use (DEC) per capita. Energy use (DEC) per area.

Biomass (share of DEC) Material use (DMC) per capita. Material use (DMC) per area. On a global level, nevertheless, the mitigating effect of population density can be demonstrated. Both among developing (i.e., in the middle of a transition from agrarian to reflective, industrial in the year 2000) and among fully industrialised countries, countries with above-average population densities are able to provide their people’s welfare at a substantially lower level of per capita consumption of english assignment 3, natural resources (Fig. 3.10 ). This finding relates to different patterns of (historically evolved) lifestyle and consumption. Good Reflective Introduction! Densely built urban centres, for language coursework assignment 3, example, demand much less infrastructure materials for supply, disposal and transportation (Weisz and Steinberger 2010 ), as well as less energy for heating and good reflective essay, transport, than scattered settlements. In the same vein, densely populated regions tend to english language coursework, develop a diet that is defense not as resource (and area) demanding as the diet in regions where there is plenty of food available. In the opposite direction of causality, one finds natural resources (such as timber, or mining products) being extracted preferably in low density areas, which boosts the metabolic rates in these regions. High density areas are instead only the consumers of these resources, and the “upstream flows” do not weigh on their metabolic rates.

The combined effect of coursework assignment 3, development status and student, population density on per capita material use (175 countries in the year 2000). (Based on english language coursework assignment, Krausmann et al. 2008 ) This difference was considered so striking that UNEP based its scenarios of future resource use on the assumption that developing countries, over the coming decades, would tend to emulate the metabolic rates of industrial countries but maintain differences according to population density (UNEP 2011 ). Nevertheless, the student essay, IRP came to the conclusion that the already ongoing continuation of coursework assignment, metabolic convergence would lead to an untenable level of good reflective introduction, global resource use, running up not only against all climate concerns but also against global resource constraints (fossil fuels, metals). Thus, Boserup, in contrast to most of her contemporaries, correctly viewed population growth and density increase not just as rising but also as alleviating environmental burdens. Although Ester Boserup, in both her 1965 book and assignment 3, her 1981 book, provides one of the most subtle and theoretically profound descriptions of the dynamics of student essay on leadership, agricultural societies, she fails to perceive the qualitative differences introduced by the use of fossil fuels. Her trust in igcse language, human ingenuity makes her overlook the possibility of a substantial overshoot of human use of resources beyond what the earth system may provide us in the long run. Writing her later book a few years after Limits to Growth by Meadow et al., she makes no reference to this work, as she had not done in her first book to Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (although the two women were personally in contact 12 ). Her personal engagement in favour of development opportunities, her strong anti-Malthusian sentiment and her theoretical roots in classical political economy did not allow her to student essay, see something obvious: that the english 3, widespread use of fossil fuels disrupted the logic of the agricultural society so well analysed by her, and that it created a new dynamic that may eventually eradicate the natural conditions for human welfare on the Earth. This transition is also reflected in several other tables in chapter 1 (Boserup 1981 ); there is never a more or less steady increase from group 1 to group 5. However a consistent pattern can be observed that groups 1–3 are fairly similar and then there is rapid change through 4 to 5. She fails to register this explicitly. Practically, of course, this would always be blurred because there is often a protracted transition phase between one system state to thesis, the other. On the concept of igcse language 3, EROI, see (Hall et al. 1986 , p. 28) In the seventeenth century in science is a bane essay, the Netherlands, for example, the exploitation of large peat deposits, intensive use of igcse 3, wind energy and dissertation business, a dense network of waterways suitable for shipping formed the energetic basis for an exceptional economic development, the Dutch Golden Age.

It is estimated that during this period, up to 1.5 million tonnes of peat were dug annually, involving the excavation of 700 ha of peatland each year. Peat is a source—albeit not one of the oldest—of fossil energy. See (De Zeeuw 1978 ). One should imagine that a Pharaoh with 2000 labourers to build the igcse coursework assignment 3, pyramids had little more capacity at his disposal as a worker would today using a large road construction machine. One Joule represents 0.24 calories and is a very small unit. A megajoule (MJ) = 10 6 J, a gigajoule (GJ) = 10 9 J and an exajoule (EJ) = 10 18 J. The energy content (calorific value) of 1 kg of wood is roughly 15 MJ, that of coal is 20–30 MJ and your dissertation london, that of petroleum is 45 MJ. The highest biomass conversion rates are seen in pastoral societies with a very high per igcse english coursework assignment 3, capita livestock holding and the lowest are recorded in societies whose means of subsistence rely predominantly on human physical work and plant-based diets (for example, in the rice-cultivating societies of south and southeast Asia).

These densely populated manufacturing centres had come into your london, existence because, as early as the seventeenth century, the English owners of large estates found it more profitable to use their land for the production of the raw materials of the textile industry than to produce foodstuff for a rural population, which, in igcse english language coursework, their eyes at least, was seen as partly expendable. The term green revolution was first coined in 1968 by William S. Gaud, the director of the United States Agency for International Development USAID. See also (Leaf 2004 ). For the elites, growth of territory, of course, was the dissertation, major mechanism for becoming richer; however, compared to today, differences in consumption levels between the english coursework assignment, rich and science is a, the richer were negligible. Measured as Domestic Energy Consumption (DEC), which includes, beyond the primary energy from commercial sources as measured by TPES (total primary energy supply), the food and feed energy consumed. Thus, it is a much better indicator for comparing energy requirements across historical periods in which food/feed energy comprised most of the energy used. According to personal communication with Faye Duchin.

Open Access This chapter is english language coursework distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and bane essay, reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and language 3, source are credited. Marina Fischer-Kowalski 1 Email author Fridolin Krausmann 1 Andreas Mayer 1 Anke Schaffartzik 1 1. Institute of Social Ecology Vienna (SEC) Alpen-Adria University Vienna Austria. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. Science Is A! .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at english language 3, your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.

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Importance Of Audience Analysis In Oral Presentations Essays and Research Papers. Persuasive Oral Presentation Outline Task Sheet Professional Communication skills HBB 2033 MUHAMAD NORILLYAS BIN HUSSIN (15168) . Title of presentation : Medan Selera Sri Iskandar as a lunch venue alternative for UTP Student 1) Justify your topic by describing the problem that you have identified * Poor service and expensive price of the food in UTP giving a nightmare to the entire student in UTP. Igcse? Unfortunately, without any power and choice they have to accept whatever it is. Although there. Audience , Audience theory , Rhetoric 863 Words | 3 Pages.

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Audience Analysis Paper COM/ Professor: Maryann Lamer June 3, 2010 Audience Analysis When . conducting an in-person meeting to a group of professional peers there are many things to consider. It is customary and recommended that before one embarks on such a mission to analyze potential options in igcse language, which to essay prompts proceed and potential barriers that may arise that will ultimately detract from the success of the meeting. The following is the igcse language assignment 3 findings of conducted research into a suggested process in. Audience , Communication , Intrinsic and essay prompts, extrinsic properties 886 Words | 3 Pages. Audience Analysis Paper Brittany Grigsby Business Communications/COM/285 May 17, 2010 Geri Markley . Audience Analysis Paper The key to approaching your audience is to first know them. First, know their characteristics; know what communication channels to use, the diversity of the audience , and most of all how would you ensure your message is effective. Identification of igcse language coursework assignment 3 Audience Characteristics Before conducting a meeting you should consider the audience’s characteristics. Audience , Audience theory , Communication 1125 Words | 4 Pages. Problem Faced in Oral Presentation and Ways to Overcome These Problem. talk with the high level of prompts confidence.

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SPEECH: OVERRCOMING FEAR IN MAKING ORAL PRESENTATION Assalamualaikum and science is a essay, good morning ladies and gentlemen. The purpose of english assignment 3 my . presentation today is to share the essay basic knowledge of overcoming fear in making oral presentation . To start with I will be explaining the second worst fear after death and that would be public speaking. Then I will mention about some of the problems encounter and how to overcome it and finally I will summarize my presentation as well as concluding some recommendations. Please. Glossophobia , Orator , Oratory 1760 Words | 5 Pages. bama's speech points up an important fact: Good public speakers are audience -centered. They know the primary purpose of speechmaking is not to english language coursework . browbeat the audience or to blow off steam. Rather, it is to gain a desired response from listeners. Being audience -centered does not involve compromising your beliefs to get a favorable response. Nor does it mean using devious, unethical tactics to achieve your goal.

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Many different ideas for the respective subjects can be used for presentation of school projects. Igcse English Language Coursework Assignment 3? The ones that are commonly used include activities like preparing models, creating charts, etc. in. Audience , Explanation , Microsoft PowerPoint 666 Words | 3 Pages. ? Introduction When speaking to any group of people its important to know your audience and how to effectively communicate the defense . information you want them to understand. Igcse English Coursework? I have been called upon to present a quarterly sales meeting, in which stakeholders, managers, customers, and salespeople will be my target audience . I thought it would be beneficial to write this paper to help those, that may find themselves in bind your london, similar situations, how to 3 better accomplish this task. I understand how. Communication , Lebanon, Tennessee , Management 1038 Words | 3 Pages.

QUESTION: Assess the significance of genetics essay prompts Oral tradition in Bantu Religion. In your view, does oral tradition have a future in . the midst of modernity and social change? In African Traditional Religion, morals, values, beliefs and culture among other things play a critical role in society. The upholding of societal norms and values is a sacred affair especially that in African society religion is igcse a way of good reflective essay life. In addition, the younger generation is also inquisitive about the igcse language coursework assignment 3 history of the. Africa , African traditional religion , Bantu 973 Words | 3 Pages.

101 MQ Instructor: Christina Oltmann, Ph.D. Oral Group Presentations and Peer Evaluations The groups will on the day and in the . order indicated below. Please consult the document to identify which groups you will peer evaluate! You will be provided with evaluation forms for bind your dissertation the individual group members and the group as a whole that you evaluate! Please read the poems on which the groups present that you evaluate! WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 3RD Presentation Group 3: Emily Dickinson, “Because I Could not. Group , Period 5 element , Transition metal 367 Words | 2 Pages.

Analysis of 'The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life' Erving Goffman's The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life provides a detailed description and igcse english language coursework, analysis of process and meaning in . everyday interaction. Goffman writes from legislation a symbolic interactionist perspective, emphasizing a qualitative analysis of the igcse english language coursework 3 components of the interactive process. Through a sociological analysis he explores the science is a bane essay details of individual identity, group relations, and the movement and interactive meaning of information. Goffman's perspective provides insight into the nature. Audience , Audience theory , Erving Goffman 1011 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance of Oral Traditions in the Caribbean. ESSAY: Assess the importance of oral tradition in the Caribbean for the development of igcse language coursework assignment its civilization from one generation to genetics . another. In the Caribbean, oral traditions are a common element in cultures throughout the region. This is igcse english coursework assignment due in part to the areas’ origin in colonialism and slavery, which brought to the region various ethnic groups, each with their own cultures and bane essay, traditions. Many if not all of these groups were illiterate which necessitated the need for oral traditions as a vital means.

African people , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 1025 Words | 3 Pages. 8 Principles of a Good Oral Communicator. Oral Communication List and discuss at least eight (8) principles of a good oral communicator. According to Lewis . Igcse Language 3? (1975), Communication means sharing messages, ideas, or attitudes that produce a degree of understanding between a sender and a receiver. Communication cannot take place until the receiver correctly receives and good reflective, interprets the information and then respond. Oral communication implies communication through the igcse language 3 mouth and essay on leadership, includes individuals interacting using spoken words. Speeches.

Language , Orator , Presentation program 973 Words | 3 Pages. The video with Steve Jobs introducing the coursework assignment “First Ever iPod” was incredible. When viewing the video presentation the audience . demographics as in age and socio-cultural background, I felt geared towards the age demographic and socio-cultural background that is known to be the Y generation overall; but markets the iPod to on leadership all ages and cultural backgrounds. The Y generation is any person that is born after the year 1983. [1] Generation Y was the first to english 3 grow up with computers in their homes and they. Abraham Maslow , Apple Inc. , Generation Y 933 Words | 3 Pages. Audience Analysis Worksheet COM/285 Audience Analysis Worksheet You are called on to present . quarterly sales information at an in-person meeting to a group of stakeholders, including managers, salespeople, and customers. Knowing communication must always be designed with the audience in genetics essay, mind, answer the following questions in 75-100 words each. English Language Assignment 3? 1. Thesis Defense Powerpoints? What characteristics of the language assignment audience must you consider? There are many characteristics to consider such as the audience’s knowledge on essay prompts the. Audience , Audience theory , Male 516 Words | 2 Pages.

SUBJECT: Assignment 1: Audience Analysis Per the week one assignment, I have reviewed and compared two Websites offering . English 3? information on the same subject. My chosen subject is kidney disease and hemodialysis and dissertation business legislation, the source Websites are: The National Kidney Foundation (http://www.kidney.org) and The Merck Manual-Professional (http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional). When reviewing the National Kidney Foundation site, I initially had difficulty determining who the intended audience actually was. You. Merck Manual of english language assignment Diagnosis and Therapy 781 Words | 2 Pages.

Effective Presentation Techniques. The term ‘ presentation ’ is defined as a formal manner of speaking, instructing or putting oneself forward. Broadly speaking, a . presentation is thesis a method involving and audio and visual aids that are used to explain a certain topic or demonstrate an idea to language coursework assignment an audience . Presentations may be informative, persuasive, and motivational; sales oriented or multipurpose in serving a variety of aims for the presenter. Defense? Depending upon the nature of the presentation and igcse language coursework assignment, the underlying purpose it is meant to serve. Audience , Presentation , Regulatory Focus Theory 1160 Words | 4 Pages. As a college student it is almost a must to be able to present an oral presentation . No matter what your major is, most probabaly . it requires the ability to thesis do a nearly perfect representaion. Especially in english language assignment 3, high school, students try to do everything to avoid making a speech or an oral presentation . I can still remember my first speech back in grade 5 which went terribly wrong. Though i was far from being a shy student, i was so nervous on the day of my speech that i could not eat that morning. Essay? I was.

Education , High school , Idea 618 Words | 2 Pages. ?University of Phoenix Material Presentation Analysis and Adaptation Worksheet Speaker Lacey MacPhail_____ Topic _How to english language coursework assignment 3 . perform a system restore in Windows 7___ Who is the audience for powerpoints this presentation ? People who are interested in computers and doing a system restore. What is the purpose of this presentation ? To explain how to do a system restore to a previous time. Explain how the topic is specific and english coursework 3, relates to essay the audience . It is igcse assignment very informative if you are. Adaptation , Attention , Audience 343 Words | 3 Pages. EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS. EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS INTRODUCTION • Oral communication is the spoken interaction between two people or more. • . Oral communication is composed of reflective multiple elements, which taken as a whole, result in the success or failure of interaction. • It is a unique and learned rhetorical skill that requires one to igcse english coursework 3 u/stand what you say and how you say it. PURPOSE OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONS • INFORMATIVE To summarize problems, describe a plan, progress report of a study. e.g. Causes of defense powerpoints AIDS in Malaysia.

Communication , Language , Nonverbal communication 574 Words | 18 Pages. Running Head: AUDIENCE ANALYSIS PAPER Audience Analysis Paper Shyra Monkres . University Of Phoenix A person whom is good at language coursework, presentations may have several reasons for being good. Ranging from knowing the information they are presenting to having high confidence to dissertation the ability to speak in front of large crowds. Another important ability is the knowledge of whom the audience is and language assignment, how to essay communicate to different groups of people. Igcse Language Assignment 3? Excellent communicators understand the. Audience , Audience theory , Communication 1104 Words | 4 Pages. in position to grow and attract new business. The city’s site offers information that would appease its audience as well as provide necessary . information for essay new or relocating businesses. An analysis of the site reveals there is room for improvement, but overall the Chamber’s site is well constructed. An analysis of the audience intended for the message’s receipt indicates the prospective audience are people looking for a beach community with low cost of living, retirees, military personnel, or businesses. Audience , Audience theory , Business 1688 Words | 5 Pages.

re-created and therefore documentaries offer a particular version of reality. The creators own personal values, attitudes and judgments influence this . reconstructed form of reality and igcse english language coursework assignment, use symbolic, written, technical and audio codes to help persuade it's audience to accept their version. This occurred in the documentary ?Born into genetics Brothels' directed by Zana Briski and Ross Kauffman. Born into Brothels documents the lives of eight local children for a on and off period of two years. Zana Briski initially. Audience , Audience theory , Born into Brothels 2048 Words | 6 Pages. Audience Analysis Paper COM/285 10/18/2010 Barbara Schifano Audience Analysis Paper Whenever . Igcse Language 3? giving a presentation it is important to properly communicate with your audience . In order for a presentation to be affective, the speaker must know who they are presenting to in order to inform, persuade, or entertain them. In order to be successful in getting your message across it benefits the speaker to have information about their guest such as their interest, likes and dislikes.

You never. 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Audience Analysis : The Ugly Truth There are many different ways of speaking with different people. These different ways may . be through a different language, slang, or simply with a different personality or demeanor. Reflective Essay? You wouldn't want to igcse coursework assignment go to the White house dressed as a hippie, and you wouldn't want to go to a gang dressed up in a tuxedo. It is also possible to analyze writing and who audience is that the author is trying to target. In the story The Ugly Truth about Beauty, Dave Barry's target. Blue-collar worker , Brad Pitt , Cindy Crawford 760 Words | 3 Pages.

Glucosamine, which are typically compounded together in an oral formulation and marketed as an your, equine joint supplement. They are widely used by . horse owners and igcse english language coursework 3, trainers in essay on leadership, an attempt to english coursework assignment 3 alleviate pain and science is a, unsoundness caused by igcse language assignment, osteoarthritis. The site from PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16334941) is designed for veterinarians and veterinary researchers. Dissertation Business Legislation? In addition, researchers for human medicine may likely be a secondary audience , as many trials are utilized on igcse english coursework 3 animals without quite as. Arthritis , Chondroitin sulfate , Glucosamine 873 Words | 2 Pages. ? ORAL PRESENTATION 1. What is oral presentation ? This is a form of essay introduction alternative assessment. Igcse Language Coursework? . Good Reflective? Oral Presentation is a verbal presentation of information that is shared with the other class members.

Opportunity for students to show what they can do and english coursework assignment 3, what was learnt. Genetics Essay Prompts? 2. Various types (descriptions) a. Speeches can be accompanied by english 3, graphics, charts, videos or power points. This can be done individually or in groups 3. Business? how they are assessed. (define and explain using examples, a. Using rubrics. Activity , Assessment , Education 413 Words | 2 Pages. Assignment 2: In- depth Audience Analysis Mohamed Kamara Dr. English 3? Victor Ramos MGT 505 Managerial and science, Business . communications July 30, 2014 The Alexandria chamber of commerce was formed in 1906 to assure business standards, to work toward better business conditions and to igcse coursework 3 serve as an active voice in framing public policies affecting the genetics business community. Its mission is to ensure a climate that grows and igcse english coursework assignment, strengthens business in Alexandria. Better , Business , Household income in good essay, the United States 743 Words | 3 Pages.

to be mastered is that of effective oral communication. Effective oral communication is about the speaker's selection of coursework . content, their presentation skills and their overall connection with the audience . Defense Powerpoints? For oral communication to be successful it has to have great content. This content must encompass an overview of the topic, clarity of an argument, credible sources and a conclusion. Topics of coursework 3 speeches should be clear and easily understood by the audience . An orator begins by stating the. Communication , Conclusion , Eye contact 1142 Words | 4 Pages. presentation A Presentation Is.

A Presentation Is. ? A presentation is a means of . communicati on thesis defense powerpoints which can be adapt ed to various speaking situations, such as talk ing to a group, addres sing a meeting or brie fing a team. English Language 3? A Presentation Is. ? Presentation is the defense powerpoints practice of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or learner. Preparing for a presentation ? Preparation is the single most important part of making a successful presentation . This is the crucial founda. Audience , Audience theory , Communication 313 Words | 9 Pages. “media audience ” is people who consume the media, in the past, they are readers who reading newspapers or magazines, and listeners who . listening to the radio.

Nowadays, media audience can be viewers who watching television program of users who surfing on the internet. And there are two views of coursework assignment “media audience ”, on dissertation the one hand, some discourses note that audience is assignment passive, which means media dominant audience reactions and feelings. Essay? On the other hand, more researchers believe that the audience is igcse english coursework assignment active. Audience , Audience theory , Marshall McLuhan 1985 Words | 7 Pages. ESSENTIALS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS REVIEW. Essentials of oral communication skills can be divide into power of . oral communication, power of speech, characteristics of science bane good speech, traits of a good speaker, advantages of a oral ommunication, styles of igcse oral comunication, comunication grid, elements of styles of communication behaviour, one is agood as one thinks, assertive rights of individuals, straegies for assertive style of essay introduction communication, traits of igcse english language coursework assignment 3 assertive style of good reflective communication and determining. Audience , Communication , Form of the english language coursework Good 1733 Words | 5 Pages.

Oral History and Analysis of bind your london Nysna. the Americas Fall 2010 Oral History Essay Analysis On New York State Nurses’ Association (NYSNA) Professor Nicole . Burrows In the late 1800s, oral history was the only way to pass stories down in order to igcse assignment preserve cultures and traditions. Defense? According to Encarta Word Dictionary, oral history is igcse assignment a written work of history based on interviews with or recordings of participants. It is one of the most traditional ways of retelling and science is a bane essay, learning history. For my oral history project, I interviewed.

Employment , International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union , Law 1308 Words | 4 Pages.

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The 50 Greatest Baseball Books of All Time. The baseball season is now upon assignment 3, us. Whoever wants to know the heart and student on leadership mind of America had better learn baseball, wrote Columbia University scholar Jacques Barzun in 1954. That observation remains true today and in the intervening years our national pastime has inspired great poems, music, plays, films, novels, and english assignment thousands of biographies, autobiographies, histories, essays, and other nonfiction works. Baseball reflects every aspect of American life and culture. Baseball has become a big business. It is deeply intertwined with American politics.

Its players created the most successful labor union in the country. In these 50 nonfiction books, you can read about colorful players and managers, remarkable feats of athletic prowess, and fascinating stories about fans, scouts, owners and powerpoints executives, and even umpires. But you can also learn about labor strife, racism, sexism, the english coursework 3 rise and decline of cities, the growth of the suburbs, the resilience of small towns, homophobia, immigration, and even American imperialism and militarism. These books will provide baseball fans with great enjoyment and dissertation london food for thought. But readers with little interest in baseball will also discover much they didn't know about American society through the lens of this fascinating sport. I've left out igcse english, how-to books and compilations of statistics and trivia. I've also excluded fiction, although baseball has inspired some of our greatest novels, including Ring Lardner's You Know Me Al (1916), Bernard Malamud's The Natural (1952), Mark Harris' Bang the Drum Slowly (1956), Robert Coover's The Universal Baseball Association, Inc., J. Henry Waugh, Prop. (1968), Philip Roth's The Great American Novel (1973), Eric Rolfe Greenberg's The Celebrant (1983), and Chad Harbach's The Art of Fielding (2011).

Rather than ranking the 50 greatest nonfiction baseball books, I've listed them in alphabetical order by author. Scroll down the list and find books that will entertain and educate. Is A Bane Essay. And if some of your favorite baseball books are missing, post a comment and let the rest of us know. 1. Charles Alexander, Our Game: An American Baseball History (1991). This is the best of many one-volume histories of igcse english language coursework assignment baseball.

Alexander, an academic historian, weaves anecdotes and profiles with analysis of how baseball reflected changes in the larger society, including the rise of cities, immigration, race relations, and other topics. Dissertation Business Legislation. He chronicles the sport's history from the beginning of the professional leagues. Reading this book, and coursework assignment watching Ken Burns' documentary series, provides anyone with the bind dissertation essential Baseball 101. 2. Igcse English Assignment 3. Roger Angell, The Summer Game (1972). At least once a year, Angell - the longtime fiction editor of powerpoints The New Yorker - entices readers with an essay about baseball.

The Summer Game is the first of igcse english several collections of his baseball writings. In this book, he reports on Sandy Koufax, Tom Seaver, Carl Yastrzemski, Willie Mays, Roberto Clemente and other players as well as the decline of the Yankee empire, baseball in Montreal, the pleasures and perils of legislation watching (and playing) baseball inside the Astrodome), the agony of the miserable Mets of 1962, the growing popularity of english coursework assignment other pro bind dissertation, sports challenging baseball's hegemony, and other topics. Angell is an expert observer of the baseball world, but his essays are as much about American culture as about the sport itself. 3. Jean Hastings Ardell, Breaking into Baseball: Women and the National Pastime (2005). The growing interest in women's participation in professional baseball began with Kelly Candaele's 1988 documentary film A League of Their Own, based on the experiences of his mother, Helen Callaghan, a left-handed center fielder who played five seasons in igcse english coursework the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League and won the batting title in 1945. Is A. That documentary inspired Penny Marshall to make the igcse english language assignment 1992 Hollywood version with the same title, starring Tom Hanks, Geena Davis, Madonna, and other stars. Gai Berlage's groundbreaking history of women's baseball -- Women in defense powerpoints Baseball (1994) was the english language coursework 3 first book to mine this untapped history. Several other authors have written books on this subject, but none is as compelling and comprehensive as Ardell's Breaking Into Baseball . She looks at women's involvement in the sport as players (pro and amateur), fans, umpires, front office executives, sportswriters, and what are often known as Baseball Annies (players' groupies - ala Susan Sarandon in student essay Bull Durham).

She managed to find and english language 3 interview many women whose contributions to baseball had been forgotten. She includes profiles of some fascinating individuals, including the Brooklyn Dodgers' bell-ringing super-fan Hilda Chester, owners Effa Manley, Joan Payson, and Marge Schott, and umpire Pam Postema. She writes about the Colorado Silver Bullets, an thesis defense powerpoints independent team that barnstormed across the county from several years, and the Philadelphia Bobbies, a team of english fourteen women (with a male battery) that played the Northwest and Japan in 1925. Ardell's thorough research produced a well-written account of this topic. It even comes with 24 illustrations and with a foreword by Ila Borders, the thesis first woman to play more than three seasons of men's professional baseball. Jennifer Ring's A Game Of Their Game (2015) has a narrower focus but is still fascinating. Ring chronicles the American team that traveled to Caracas, Venezuela to represent the U.S. in the fourth Women's Baseball World Cup, a tournament that received very little attention in the American media. Ring includes oral histories of eleven of the teams 20 members, describing how they fell in igcse english language coursework love with and learned to play and excel in the sport. 4. Eliot Asinof, Eight Men Out: The Black Sox and thesis the 1919 World Series (1965). The fixing of the 1919 World Series by gamblers and eight Chicago White Sox players was baseball's biggest scandal, even more than corked bats and steroid use. English Language Assignment 3. In a you are there style, Asinof vividly describes the on leadership unfolding controversy, as the White Sox players, angry at their low pay and mistreatment by the team owner, and eager to cash in on this opportunity, threw the series against the Cincinnati Reds.

Asinof takes us behind the scenes to meetings between players and english coursework gamblers, differences among the players, how the players blew certain plays at bat and in the field but tried to cover up their underwhelming performances, the newspapermen who uncovered the fix, the Grand Jury indictment, the amazing 1921 trial, and the controversy over whether some players (especially Shoeless Joe Jackson) who didn't participate in the fix were banished from baseball anyway. The so-called Black Sox scandal led to major changes in baseball, including the creation of a new position, Commissioner, to try to redeem the sport in the public mind at the start of the business legislation Roaring Twenties. John Sayles' 1988 film, Eight Men Out, based on the book, is one of the best baseball moves of all time. Sayles hired several young actors with baseball talent - including John Cusack and english language 3 Charlie Sheen - to play White Sox. 5. Allan Barra, Clearing the Bases: The Greatest Baseball Debates of the Last Century (2002). This is book meant for baseball junkies who like to essay, argue about the greatest (or worst) players, teams, games, seasons, and incidents in the game's history.

Barra combines statistics and common sense. He uses numbers in ways that humanize the game rather than turn it into baseball accounting. He challenges the myth that Babe Ruth was baseball's savior after the 1919 Black Sox scandal, which he calls an American creation myth. Although I grew up believing (and still believe) that Willie Mays was superior to Mickey Mantle, Barra uses statistics to convincingly challenge that view. No baseball lover will come away from reading this book without having some of igcse coursework assignment 3 his/her cherished beliefs challenged, but as a result will be a much better-informed fan. 6. Your London. Billy Bean, Going the Other Way: Lessons from language coursework, a Life in and out of Major League Baseball (2003). In 1999, former major league outfielder Billy Bean made headlines, not for his play on the field but by coming out of the student essay closet as a gay man. While Bean played for igcse english language coursework assignment the Tigers, Dodgers, and Padres from thesis powerpoints, 1987 to 1995, he pretended to date women, furtively went to gay bars, and hid his gay lover from teammates and fans. In this courageous memoir, Bean (who is often confused with another Billy Bean, the english language subject of the book Moneyball) recounts how Dodgers manager Tommy Lasorda constantly made homophobic jokes, even as Lasorda's gay son was dying from AIDS. Bean quit when he could no longer stand living a double life.

When he came out dissertation business legislation, publicly, his story made front-page news in the New York Times , and he became active in gay rights causes. Language Coursework Assignment 3. Bean describes what it was like to be a gay player in a sport where uber-masculinity is admired and science is a bane essay anti-gay jokes are common. To keep him sexuality a secret, he dated women and english assignment had to engage in furtive encounters with other gay men. He takes readers inside the dissertation business clubhouse and onto the playing field, showing the physical and emotional toll that playing pro baseball takes on the players, and igcse english language assignment the added psychological burden of having to dissertation business legislation, hide who he was to all but a handful of english coursework close friends. Bean's love for the game shines through, and thus his decision to quit in order to be honest with himself and to maintain his relationship with his lover is student, even more excruciating. Bean was the second ex-major leaguer to publicly acknowledge his homosexuality. The first was Glenn Burke, who played for the Dodgers and Oakland A's from 1976 to igcse english language coursework assignment, 1979, came out to family and friends in 1975 but lived in fear that his teammates and managers would discover his sexual orientation. In his own 1995 autobiography, Out at Home , published posthumously later that year, Burke -- who died of AIDS in 1995 at age 42 -- revealed that the Dodgers' management offered to pay for good reflective essay introduction a luxurious honeymoon if he would agree to a marriage of convenience to language coursework assignment, conceal his homosexuality. When he refused, he was traded to reflective essay, the A's. The A's manager Billy Martin made public statements about not wanting a homosexual in his clubhouse, a clear reference to Burke. Frustrated, Burke retired and kept his homosexuality secret until he cooperated for coursework assignment a 1982 article in Inside Sports magazine.

7. Jim Bouton, Ball Four (1970). The one-time pitching ace of the New York Yankees scandalized baseball fans, fellow players and executives with the first insider expose of the daily lives of players, managers, and coaches. Most sportswriters until then treated players as heroic larger-than-life figures and even role models for America's youth. Reflecting the reflective introduction rebellious spirit of the 1960s, Bouton pulled the curtain back - revealing players who pop pills and engage in beaver shooting, among other activities -- leading some sportswriters and the baseball establishment to call him a traitor. Commissioner Bowie Kuhn pressured Bouton (unsuccessfully) to declare the igcse english language coursework assignment book untrue. By today's standards, Bouton's revelations seem mild, but it is still a fascinating read as well as an historic trendsetter that changed baseball writing forever. 8. Jimmy Breslin, Can't Anybody Here Play This Game?: The Improbable Saga of the New York Mets' First Year (1963). Pulitzer Prize-winning New York newspaper columnist provides a funny, affectionate, and insightful look at the first season of the Amazing Mets, an expansion team with a roster of comprised mostly of student essay on leadership has-been veterans and young cast-offs from other teams. That year - 1962 - the National League expanded to ten teams and the Mets came in tenth, winning 40 games and losing 120 games for manager Casey Stengel, the colorful former Yankee manager who was the igcse language coursework 3 perfect man for the new job.

The team's .240 season batting average was the worst in the league. Having lost the Dodgers and Giants to the West Coast in 1958, many New York area fans were hungry for another major league team, especially since many of them hated the Yankees, the defense powerpoints only team left behind. The Mets were the igcse english language coursework 3 city's lovable losers. In his introduction to the book, Bill Veeck praises Breslin for preserving for all time a remarkable tale of ineptitude, mediocrity, and abject failure. 9. Jim Brosnan, The Long Season (1960).

This book laid the groundwork for student Bouton's Ball Four a decade later. Brosnan spent nine years in the majors as a so-so relief pitcher for the St. Igcse English Coursework Assignment 3. Louis Cardinals and then the Cincinnati Reds. In 1959, he kept a diary, beginning with the winter when he waits to see whether his contract will be renewed, then takes us through spring training in Florida and through the entire season. Dissertation. The bespeckled Brosnan was considered an intellectual by his teammates and indeed his writing is literate and insightful about the lives and personalities of his fellow players. It was not as controversial or scandalous as Bouton's book but it had almost as big an impact in english language coursework assignment terms of your dissertation london its influence on baseball writing, anticipating the graceful works by Roger Kahn and Roger Angell.

10. Adrian Burgos Jr., Playing America's Game: Baseball, Latinos, and the Color Line (2007). Until recently, baseball historians routinely ignored the reality that Latinos were a part of professional baseball (including the Negro Leagues) from its early days, beginning with Esteban Bellan, a Cuban who played in the National Association between 1871 and 1873. Using archival materials from the United States, Puerto Rico and Cuba, and interviews with major league and Negro League players, Burgos reveals how Latino players negotiated racial barriers. Some Latinos passed for igcse english assignment 3 white, and some Black players passed as Latinos, depending on which group was more accepted in particular times and places. He shows how the idea of race is an arbitrary category, subject to changing prejudices and conditions. Some Anglicized their names to avoid discrimination. Some Negro League teams were comprised almost entirely of Cubans. Bind Dissertation. Some major league teams were more willing than others to recruit Latino players, laying the groundwork for the Brooklyn Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey to sign Jackie Robinson to officially dismantle the english language assignment major league color line in genetics essay 1947.

Burgos, a history professor at the University of igcse english language 3 Illinois, offers captivating profiles of the trials and triumphs of players like Minnie Minoso, Robert Clemente, Orlando Cepeda, and other Latino pioneers, many of them little-known even by many baseball fans. 11. Robert Cottrell, Two Pioneers: How Hank Greenberg and Jackie Robinson Transformed Baseball -- and America (2012). Thesis Defense Powerpoints. Greenberg and Robinson were pioneers on and off the baseball field. In confronting anti-Semitism and racism, they not only changed baseball but they also changed American society by challenging stereotypes and speaking out against bigotry. Not surprisingly, Greenberg was one of the few white ballplayers who supported and coursework encouraged Robinson when he entered the major leagues in 1947.

The best biography of the Jewish slugger is Hank Greenberg with Ira Berkow, Hank Greenberg: The Story of My Life (1989). Berkow began writing the memoir with Greenberg and completed it after Greenberg died. 12. Richard Ben Cramer, Joe DiMaggio: The Hero's Life (2000). After reading this book, you will admire DiMaggio's exceptional athletic feats and student on leadership his loyalty to his ex-wife Marilyn Monroe, but you will come away thinking that as a human being the Yankee Clipper was an incredibly selfish asshole.

Cramer writes as gracefully as DiMaggio played. The son of a Sicilian immigrant who scratched out a bare living as a San Francisco fisherman, DiMaggio was such a remarkably talented ballplayer (at bat as well as in igcse english language assignment center field) that he rose quickly from the sandlots to on leadership, the big leagues. 3. He was soon one of the most popular figures in pro baseball. He enjoyed his fame but he insisted on his privacy and dissertation business legislation kept most people at arm's length, although he had his own bevvy of language coursework assignment hangers-on, including mobsters, celebrities, sportswriters, and showgirls. He was inarticulate and ashamed of his lack of education.

From his rookie season in 1936, DiMaggio replaced Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig as the idol of Yankee fans, keeping the team consistently in the World Series. Cramer's look at DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak in 1941 may convince you that it is the single most remarkable accomplishment in baseball history. He was loved and student on leadership admired by english coursework assignment, fans but he an unhappy soul. His marriages (including his second marriage to Monroe) were failures. He had many acquaintances but few real friends. He was not close to his brothers Vince and Dom, both major league outfielders. DiMaggio remained a public figure after he retired - flacking for Mr. Coffee and basking in the applause of good introduction crowds at english assignment 3, Old Timers game -- but was basically a lonely man. Cramer captures DiMaggio's heroic and the tragic side in reflective essay this highly readable biography. 13. English Language Coursework Assignment 3. Robert Creamer, Babe: The Legend Comes to Life (1974).

A veteran writer for business legislation Sports Illustrated , Creamer's biography of igcse english assignment 3 Babe Ruth is worthy of his extraordinary subject. Ruth is the most famous player and colorful character in the game's history, but Creamer is not awed by the task of revealing the man behind the legend. He examines Ruth's early days in a Baltimore orphanage, his incredible early days in the majors as the reflective essay introduction Red Sox ace pitcher, his glory days with the Yankees as a home run-hitting slugger and outsize personality, and english language coursework assignment his rapid decline and humiliation with the Boston Braves and Brooklyn Dodgers. The superb biography ranks as one of the best ever written about a baseball player, although Creamer's 1984 bio of Casey Stengel is almost as great. 14.

Nicholas Dawidoff, The Catcher Was a Spy: The Mysterious Life of essay prompts Moe Berg (1994). Berg was a second-string catcher for several major league teams between 1923 and english language coursework 1939. As a baseball player, he would hardly rate a full-scale biography. But Berg was a fascinating individual on many levels and Dawidoff does justice to the secretive Berg who was a rare college graduate (Princeton) among players of that era as well as one of the few Jewish major leaguers. Berg earned the essay introduction Medal of Freedom for spying on the German's A-bomb project for the Office of Strategic Services but was later dropped by the CIA. Dawidoff interviewed hundreds of people and mined many archives to igcse language assignment, uncover Berg's secret life - not only as a spy but as a man whose entire life - including his final two decades as an out-of-work vagabond who mooched on his friends through his charm and wit - was shrouded in mystery. Dawidoff captures Berg as a multi-lingual genius whose life was both remarkable and tragic. 15.

Robert Elias, The Empire Strikes Out: How Baseball Sold U.S. Foreign Policy and bind your dissertation london Promoted the American Way Abroad (2010). Elias loves baseball but he doesn't like the way it has been used by American corporations and the U.S. government (including the military) to impose our values on other countries and exploit its natural and human resources. Elias follows the game from the Revolutionary War to modern times. He documents that baseball has played a role in every U.S. war and every American overseas adventure since the 1800s. During World War 1, a New York Times reporter suggested that The world ought to be made safe for baseball. Although few have expressed that sentiment so bluntly, Elias demonstrates that baseball has often been a pawn in the game of world politics. Elias' revisionist history examines how Americans exported baseball to Japan, Cuba, Central America, Great Britain, and Western Europe as part of igcse english language coursework assignment its broader aims to gain economic and your dissertation london military advantage. His analysis of igcse assignment baseball's role in the Cuban and Nicaraguan revolution is reflective essay introduction, provocative. He notes that, even today, Major League Baseball is unwilling to igcse language assignment, share power with international baseball federations, the International Olympic Committee, or foreign leagues.

He observes, drawing on the research of other scholars and journalists, that MLB colonialism is alive and well in Latin America and elsewhere, exploiting cheap foreign labor trained in plantation-like baseball academies. Elias' extensive research is filled with eye-opening anecdotes and tidbits. Did you know that the is a bane essay word bullpen originally described an igcse 3 enclosure used by the U.S. cavalry to dissertation business, detain Native Americans? 17. Arnold Hano, A Day in the Bleachers (1955) Hano, one of our preeminent sportswriters, takes from the igcse english language coursework assignment 3 subway ride to the ballpark, through batting practice and warm-ups, to the game-winning home run. On an inning by student on leadership, inning basis, it chronicles the opening game of the 1954 World Series which the underdog New York Giants eventually won in four games. Igcse Assignment. But the defense book concentrates on the first game at the Polo Grounds and depicts the most famous catch in baseball history, Willie Mays over-the-shoulder steal of Vic Wertz's fly ball to center field that, had Mays not caught up to it, would have certainly been triple (or perhaps even an inside-the-park homer). Hano also describes bleacher fans' thrill when Dusty Rhodes hit the game-winning pinch-hit home run in the 10th inning. Hano takes readers into the stands in order to view the game from the perspective of the ordinary fans. 18. John Helyar, The Lords of the Realm (1995) This a colorful and insightful history of baseball's labor-management relations up through the 1994 strike, but it doesn't read at all like a book about economics.

It is igcse english language coursework assignment 3, filled with fascinating anecdotes, profiles of players, owners, agents, and others. We learn about Danny Gardella, a so-so major league player who jumped to the Mexican League in 1946 and student sued when all the big league owners used the hated reserve clause to blacklist him. (When a Federal Court ruled that his case merited trial, the baseball establishment settled out of court). We learn about how the assignment players' union overturned the reserve clause and brought about essay prompts, free agency. We see how Commission Peter Ueberroth and the owners colluded in ways that would make an igcse anti-trust lawyer squirm, even though baseball has a ridiculous exemption from anti-trust laws. We get all sides of the Pete Rose scandal. Science Essay. Most of the owners come off as greedy egomaniacs. Bill Veeck is an exception - a non-greedy egomaniac. Players Association chief Marvin Miller is a hero. 19. Donald Honig, Baseball When the Grass Was Real: Baseball from the Twenties to the Forties, Told by the Men Who Played It (1975). It is easy for baseball writers to fall prey to igcse coursework 3, nostalgia for the good old days.

But Honig resists that temptation while reminding us of dissertation legislation how different the game between the two major wars as seen through the igcse assignment 3 eyes of the players - including the greats and the not-so-greats. Honig followed in is a bane essay footsteps of english coursework 3 Lawrence Ritter, whose 1966 book, The Glory of Their Times: The Story of the Early Days of london Baseball Told By the Men Who Played It, was Honig's inspiration. Both writers are oral historians who crisscrossed the country to interview former major leaguers who shared their memories. Language Coursework 3. In Honig's book, we learn about the sport's iconic figures (such as Babe Ruth, Lefty Grove, Ted Williams, Bob Feller, Dizzy Dean, Jackie Robinson, Lou Gehrig, and many others) through stories told by their teammates and dissertation legislation opposing players, including Wes Ferrell, Charlie Gehringer, Elbie Fletcher, Bucky Waters, Billy Herman, Cool Papa Bell, Spud Chandler, Pete Reiser, and others. Honig, who eventually wrote 39 books about the igcse english language national pastime, once explained his method: I began trekking around the country, doing face to good introduction, face interviews. English Coursework Assignment. They are so much better than telephone - you can spend hours, have a drink, relax, really get to know someone. I could have done Ted Williams, but only by phone, so I passed on on leadership it. And Ted told me 'we could make an appointment, but chances are, I wouldn't show up.' 20. Jerome Holtzman, No Cheering in the Press Box (1995).

Holtzman, a longtime sportswriter for several Chicago newspapers, gathers together the reminiscences and reflections from 24 sportswriters -- including Red Smith, Jimmy Cannon, Shirley Povich, Ford Frick -- during the Golden Age of Sports between the two World Wars when newspapers, not TV, re-created the drama of the boxing ring, the english coursework 3 racetrack, and, above all, the baseball field. Originally published in 1974, the revised 1995 edition of the book adds six new names, including Wendell Smith, who was one of the best baseball writers within the African American press and whose name is now better-known thanks to the recent film 42 about Jackie Robinson. This is oral history at its best. This is Holtzman's version of The Boys of Summer , except it focuses on genetics essay the boys with typewriters and igcse english language coursework assignment notepads rather than bats and dissertation gloves. 21. Roger Kahn, The Boys of Summer (1972). Many baseball aficionados consider this the best book ever written about the coursework game. It tells the story of the essay men who played on the great Brooklyn Dodger teams of the 1950s - not only during those great seasons but also what happened to them when their glory days were behind them. Kahn's profiles of the players - not only the superstars like Jackie Robinson, Pee Wee Reese, Don Newcombe, Gil Hodges, Roy Campanella, and Duke Snider, but also the second stringers and bench warmers - are beautifully written, filled with warmth, humor, and wit.

There is language coursework assignment, much triumph and tragedy, as with any group of human beings. Dissertation Business Legislation. We learn that when Carl Furillo, a great hitter whose rifle arm also made him an outstanding right fielder, ended his playing days he became a construction worker and helped build the World Trade Center, then owned a butcher shop in Queens, and later worked as a night watchman. Igcse English Language Coursework. Kahn writes movingly about on leadership, Joe Black, who joined the Dodgers from the Negro Leagues and had one exceptional season - pitching the team to the 1952 pennant, winning the Rookie of the Year award - then hurt his arm and was out of the majors three years later. But Black returned to his (and my) hometown in New Jersey, taught school, then became a successful executive with Greyhound and an advocate for former Negro League players. Language Coursework Assignment 3. Kahn grew up near Ebbets Field, covered the Dodgers for the Herald Tribune , and writes with amazing grace. 22. Roger Kahn, Good Enough to good reflective, Dream (1985).

No matter what major league team you support, Kahn's book will have you rooting for the 1983 Utica Blue Sox in the New York-Penn League. Kahn decided to purchase this lowly minor league team (it came cheap) and writes lovingly and igcse coursework humorously about its players, fans, umpires, and staff as well as about the tribulations of science bane being an owner who has to decide whether and when to release a young player and has to igcse english coursework assignment 3, make sure that the bathrooms in Murnane Field are clean and the toilets are working properly. Essay. I could barely believe what I was saying, Kahn writes, I was conducting a seminar on toilet paper. The Blue Sox were not a farm team of any of the major league franchises, so Kahn was in charge of a team filled with free agents whose chances of making the show were slim. But the Blue Sox wound up being in a tight pennant race, so there's also a lot of on-the-field drama as his players come together, concerned as much about their team's accomplishments as about their individual careers and getting out of the english language assignment minor leagues at the bottom of the pro baseball system. Good. Some of his players, however, were derided as castoffs and as geriatric rejects, but they loved playing baseball, which makes the book a revealing human story as much as a tale about sports.

How good are these guys, Kahn asked his general manager. They're good enough to dream, was the reply. 23. Kevin Kerrane, Dollar Sign on the Muscle: The World of Baseball Scouting (1984, updated 2013). Baseball scouts can make or break players' careers. As player salaries (and initial signing bonuses) have dramatically increased, the role of igcse assignment scouts has become even more important. Kerrane take us inside their world, where we learn about essay on leadership, their daily lives, how they evaluate players, and the original (and often surprising) scouting reports on some of baseball's greatest players. Assignment 3. The scouts who seek out major league prospects are like explorers, wandering the country's amateur diamonds in the hope of finding a treasure--or a raw talent that can be turned into a treasure.

A lot of what romance remains in good reflective essay baseball centers on this perennial quest, and Kerrane, an english language English professor at bane essay, the University of english coursework assignment 3 Delaware, captures it in this wonderfully affectionate book. Science Bane Essay. -- People magazine. We see baseball from the scouts' perspective, including this great quote from scout Leon Hamilton: I love baseball. Language. I hope to dissertation legislation, die, when my time comes, in a ballpark. Language. And I just hope that I don't fall on the guy next to me while the tyin' or winnin' run is on essay base and keep him from seein' it. 24. English Language Coursework. Charles Korr, The End of Baseball as We Knew It: The Players Union, 1960-81 (2002). Historian Korr was the thesis defense first scholar given access to the files, letters, and correspondence of the Major League Baseball Players Association, including the files of Marvin Miller, the language union's brilliant executive director, hired in 1966. Korr also draws on interviews with ballplayers, journalists, and team executives to construct this insider's view of the formative years of the most successful labor union in bind your dissertation london the country. The book's title comes from former big league manager Paul Richards, who warned that if the owners signed a collective bargaining agreement with the union, it would be the end of baseball as we knew it. Igcse Language Coursework Assignment. He was right. The MLBPA not only changed baseball.

It also changed all American sports, amateur and pro. Baseball players are among the most individualistic in genetics prompts major pro sports. Getting them to igcse coursework 3, join forces into a union was no easy task, especially when owners kept reminding them that there were plenty of thesis defense other athletes willing to take their places. Korr explain how they did it. Among other things, it required a few high profile, and thus irreplaceable players, to take leadership. Igcse Coursework. Korr gives credit to Tom Seaver, Jim Bunning (later a right-wing U.S. Senator!), Ralph Kiner, Robin Roberts, Tim McCarver, Reggie Jackson, Bob Boone, Joe Torre, and Curt Flood. Introductions to books by celebrities are usually pretty awful, but Bob Costas' introduction is insightful and entertaining. 26. Chris Lamb, Conspiracy of Silence: Sportswriters and the Long Campaign to Desegregate Baseball (2012) - Everyone knows that Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color line in 1947. But few people know about the bold inter-racial movement that laid the foundation for Robinson's achievement.

Progressive and left-wing activists, radical journalists, and the Black press led the effort to desegregate baseball. The campaign was one of the most important civil rights stories of the 1930s and 1940s. Business Legislation. Most white Americans knew nothing about this story because mainstream newspapers said little about the color line and igcse english language coursework assignment 3 less about the efforts to defense, end it. Lamb shows how white mainstream sportswriters perpetuated the color line by igcse language, participating in essay introduction what their black counterparts called a conspiracy of silence. 27. David Lamb, Stolen Season: A Journey Through America and Baseball's Minor Leagues (1991). Lamb needed a break from his job as a political reporter foreign correspondent for the Los Angeles Times, so he spent a summer traveling16,000 miles across America visiting as many minor league towns and stadiums as he could.

Starting in Stockton, California, he watched and talked to the owners, managers, coaches, players, and language coursework fans in on leadership Arizona, Oklahoma, Texas, Florida, Appalachia, New England, and the Midwest. It is an eye-opening chronicle of hopes and english language coursework dreams but also a snapshot of the towns (many of them in rural areas) that support these teams because they love baseball. Introduction. Lamb is a sharp-eyed reporter and a baseball fanatic who writes about the game and the unforgettable characters he meets with humor and igcse english coursework warmth. One of the most poignant scenes is Lamb's encounter with his boyhood hero, Eddie Mathews, the former Braves slugging third baseman who was working as a batting coach for the Braves' AA team in Durham, North Carolina. Starting in genetics essay the 1950s, many minor league teams and coursework leagues collapsed, the result of the rise of television (making major league games accessible to genetics, people around the country) and unsustainable economics. But in recent years, minor league teams have made a slight comeback in small towns and big cities alike. 28. Jane Leavy, Sandy Koufax: A Lefty's Legacy (2002). Koufax was the igcse english language greatest pitcher in major league history, but his career was cut short by injuries and he retired at age 32.

His 1963 season - in which he won 25 games, lost 5, posted a 1.88 earned run average, struck out 306 batters, pitched 20 complete games and 11 shutouts - might be the bane greatest single season mound performance in modern baseball history. Few know that in high school Koufax was better at igcse language coursework assignment 3, basketball than baseball, earning a hoops scholarship to dissertation, the University of Cincinnati. The Dodgers signed this Brooklyn native as the great Jewish hope but his first few years in igcse english language coursework assignment 3 the majors were a flop. Genetics. It was only after Koufax took something off his fastball and gained some control over his pitches that he became a super-star. Koufax was not a colorful character, but Leavy manages to make this biography both poignant and entertaining by piercing the veil of the reclusive Koufax who has always been reluctant - as a player and as a former player - to bask in his celebrity. Leavy intersperses chapters about Koufax's life with a riveting and detailed inning-by-inning narrative of his 1965 perfect game, written in the present tense, which gives readers a sense of being at english, the game. She not only business, reports what is happening on the field but also what is assignment, taking place in the locker room, in the press box, among the grounds crew, and among the fans in the seats. She describes the bane essay play-by-play of legendary announcing Vin Scully, who by igcse english, the ninth inning was no longer simply the voice of the Dodgers. Essay Prompts. He was the narrator of a collective aspiration.

She gives due credit to Bob Hendley, the opposing pitcher, who threw a one-hitter. He not only lost the game; his feat has been lost to history, overshadowed by Koufax's perfection. 29. Jane Leavy, The Last Boy: Mickey Mantle and the End of language coursework assignment America's Childhood (2010). Mantle arrived to play outfield for essay the Yankees in 1951 and to replace the iconic Joe DiMaggio. The poorly-educated son of a hard-scrabble zinc miner from rural Oklahoma, Mantle was amazingly strong, fast, good looking, and shy but charming, and played in english coursework the nation's media capital. Your London. He was probably the most written-about super-star in baseball history.

His talent was obvious. Igcse Language 3. He could hit with power, run the bases with speed, and catch fly balls that most other outfielders wouldn't get near. During his 18-year career, Mantle put up All Star numbers, and won three MVP awards and a triple crown in 1956, despite playing on a crippled leg that slowed him down and was constantly in pain. But his playing days and his years in retirement were filled with as much tragedy as triumph, a victim of injuries, drinking, and your dissertation london a careless attitude about his physical condition. Because Mantle believed he would die as a result of an english language assignment 3 inherited disease before his reached his prime, he abused his body and defense powerpoints his natural talent. English Language Coursework Assignment. Leavy's portrait of Mantle is essay, a literary masterpiece as well as a masterful feat of investigative reporting. She reports that Mantle was sexually abused as a child by a half-sister and neighborhood boys, which had lasting emotional consequences of which Mantle himself was hardly aware. She also tracks down the coursework 3 boy (by then, a 69-year old man) who found the baseball that Mantle drove 565 feet out of Washington's Griffith Stadium in order to on leadership, dissect the myths and realities of that remarkable blast. Leavy has an eye for anecdotes that reveal a larger reality.

She describes the day in 1969 when an overflow crowd in Yankee Stadium gathered to retire Mantle's uniform number. Igcse Assignment. He had watched Gary Cooper deliver Lou Gehrig's farewell address in 'The Pride of the thesis powerpoints Yankees.' Now he was standing in the same spot, invoking Gehrig's parting words: 'I always wondered how a man who knew he was going to die could stand here and say he was the igcse coursework 3 luckiest man in the world. Now I think I know how Lou Gehrig felt.' What was lost in all the huzzahs attendant to the occasion -- the last lap around the powerpoints stadium in a bullpen cart with hand-painted pinstripes -- was that he cast himself as a dying man. Language Coursework. In fact, he was already planning his funeral. Leavy describes Mantle's alcoholic binges, his womanizing (he even hit on Leavy when she first tried to legislation, interview him), and his troubled relationship with his wife and children, but she also provides examples of Mantle's charitable acts and kindness, the affection his teammates had for him, and, toward the end of his life, his growing self-awareness and regrets that led him to language assignment, acknowledge his failures and dissertation urge youngsters not to follow his example.

By the end of the book, we don't necessarily like him, but we certainly understand him. 30. Michael Lewis, Moneyball: The Art of Winning an igcse english assignment 3 Unfair Game (2003). In 2002, the Oakland Athletics had a surprising winning record (103-59) - and even won an incredible 20 consecutive games - despite having the smallest player payroll of any major league team. Good Reflective Essay. Lewis followed the team and discovered the secret of the A's success was general manager Billy Beane's use of statistics to english language assignment, evaluate and trade for under-appreciated players who didn't command huge salaries but, as a team, were outstanding at producing runs and winning games. Beane was the first general manager to take seriously the number-crunching expertise pioneered by Bill James and his annual report, Baseball Abstract. Beane defied conventional wisdom and his own scouts in assembling his team through shrewd trades.

Lewis' book is student, both a wonderful profile of Beane and language assignment a fantastic insider look at the daily life of a major league team. Defense Powerpoints. It also explores baseball's business side and reveals how statistics can help us understand the day-to-day accomplishments of both ordinary and extraordinary players. But Moneyball doesn't read like a business book. Igcse English Coursework Assignment 3. It is filled with colorful figures, including Beane, who transformed himself from defense powerpoints, a can't miss baseball prospect who never fulfilled his on-the-field potential to igcse english language, a successful sports executive whose assessment of players' talent and character was informed by essay, his own experiences as a player. The film version of Moneyball, released in 2011, is among the best baseball movies ever made. 31. Lee Lowenfish, The Imperfect Diamond: A History of Baseball's Labor Wars (1980, updated 2010). From the introduction of the igcse language coursework assignment reserve clause in reflective essay 1879 to the lockout and language basic agreement of science bane 1990, baseball players have been engaged in one of the coursework longest and most colorful labor struggles in our nation's history. The Imperfect Diamond tells the stories of the thesis defense players and igcse assignment their opponents, the essay prompts powerful owners.

We learn how John Montgomery Ward led the Players League Rebellion of 1890, the rise and fall of english coursework assignment David Fultz and the Baseball Players Fraternity (1912-18) and the hardball regime of the genetics essay prompts sport's first Commissioner, Kennesaw Mountain Landis, who was brought in to restore the game's credibility after the igcse english language 3 1919 Black Sox scandal. Lowenfish explores how the baseball establishment blacklisted players who jumped to the Mexican League for better salaries and the case of one of reflective those players, Danny Gardella, who sued baseball from infringing on his rights as a worker. The Baseball Players Association was founded in 1953 but, as Lowenfish explains, it didn't know how to igcse, use its muscle until it hired Marvin Miller as its executive director. Curt Flood, Andy Messersmith, and thesis defense powerpoints Dave McNally helped destroy baseball's dreaded reserve clause and create a new era of free agency. Lowenfish explains how the baseball owners persuaded Congress to exempt the pro igcse coursework assignment 3, sports from anti-trust laws, how players had to fight for good a pension fund for retired players, the 1991 midseason strike, the 1994-95 strike that led to the cancellation of the World Series, and players' skyrocketing salaries, and the recent steroids controversy. Lowenfish writes clearly and colorfully. His book is not only about baseball, but about capitalism and the persistent struggle between owners and workers. In the case of major league baseball, however, the workers - thanks to their union - eventually won most of the major battles.

Left out of these victories - and igcse english language coursework assignment 3 out of Lowenfish's otherwise comprehensive account - are the minor league players and essay the workers employed by major league teams as ushers, food vendors, parking lot attendants, and other support staff. 32. David Maraniss, Clemente: The Passion and Grace of Baseball's Last Hero (2006). Roberto Clemente was baseball's first Latino super-star. But his athletic accomplishments didn't stop the english coursework assignment racism he faced on essay and off the field, including among teammates, fans, and especially many sportswriters. Like Jackie Robinson, he used his celebrity to speak out on social issues.

During his career with the Pittsburgh Pirates, he won four batting titles and led the igcse assignment team to championships in 1960 and 1971. He got hits in defense all 14 World Series games in which he played. He ended his career with exactly 3,000 hits, getting the igcse coursework assignment 3 last one in his final at bat. On New Year's Eve 1972, he was killed in a plane crash as he attempted to deliver food and medical supplies to Nicaragua after a devastating earthquake. He and Lou Gehrig are the only players to have the five-year waiting period waived so they could be enshrined in the Hall of Fame immediately after their deaths. Maraniss captures Clemente's life and times, his baseball heroics, the obstacles he overcame, and his commitment to helping others. He also uncovered documents that reveal the negligence that led to Clemente's death in an uninspected, overloaded plane. 33. Marvin Miller, A Whole Different Ball Game: The Inside Story of the Baseball Revolution (2004).

The biggest scandal in baseball history doesn't have to on leadership, do with steroids or fixing games. It is the blacklisting of Marvin Miller from baseball's Hall of Fame. Year after year, the owners have colluded to change the rules to make sure that Miller, the first executive director of the Players Association, doesn't win enough votes to get into Cooperstown. Adding to the scandal is the Players Association's failure to english coursework, wage a campaign to insist that Miller - who lead the union from 1966 to 1983 and who died in 2012 at age 95- be voted into reflective essay introduction that hallowed hall. I interviewed Miller for The Nation in 2008; by then, he was resigned to this snub and no longer cared. Miller's 2004 autobiography tells the story of how the Players Association forced owners - who conducted their business like feudal barons and treated their players like serfs - to recognize the igcse english language coursework 3 union and genetics essay compensate players based on their value to assignment, the franchises.

Miller, who had been chief economist and assistant to introduction, the president of the steelworkers' union, recounts his experience educating players to think of themselves as workers and union members, while dealing with hostile club owners and english language sport writers. He gives credit to the players, like Curt Flood and dissertation legislation others, who made significant sacrifices for the union and their fellow players. This is english coursework assignment 3, a first-hand account by the most influential individual in baseball history. 34. Danny Peary, Cult Baseball Players: The Greats, the Flakes, the your london Weird and the Wonderful (1990). There are hundreds of baseball books about the best and worst players, teams, seasons, and so on. This book is unusual because it focuses on cult players whose greatness isn't necessary defined by igcse english coursework 3, batting averages, won-loss records, or similar statistics. Each chapter is an essay written by a different writer about prompts, his or her favorite player. Some essays are better than others but a few are outstanding. One of the best is John Schulian's ode to Steve Bilko, perhaps the greatest slugger in the 1950s Pacific Coast League who had a so-so major league career and whose exploits so inspired TV writer Neil Simon that he named Phil Silvers' conniving Army sergeant after him. Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould waxes poetic about the New York Giants' Dusty Rhodes, who had a few remarkable years as a pinch hitter.

Filmmaker John Sayles' elegy for 3 slugger Dick Stuart and newspaper columnist Pete Hamill's ruminations about infielder Eddie Stanky are worth the price of business legislation admission. The best, though, is the essay by Ron Shelton (who wrote Bull Durham among other sports films) about Steve Dalkowski, perhaps the fastest pitcher in baseball history whose drinking and wildness kept him from becoming a major leaguer, much less a star. Perhaps the igcse coursework assignment 3 biggest gap among the thousands of books written about baseball is good essay introduction, a biography of Dalkowski, a tale more about tragedy than triumph, but a haunting human story nonetheless. 35. Robert Peterson, Only the igcse english coursework Ball Was White: A History of Legendary Black Players and All-Black Professional Teams (1970). Student On Leadership. Over the past three decades, there have been dozens of books written about the english language coursework assignment 3 Negro Leagues, but Peterson was the pioneer who set the stage for all the others. Former Negro League players are now in the Cooperstown Hall of Fame, the Negro Leagues have their own Hall of Fame in Kansas City, and there are lots of websites where you can learn about the Negro League teams and stars. Written and researched in the 1960s - when most of the dissertation great Negro League stars were still alive and a few were still in the majors - Peterson relied on news accounts (including the Black press) and english language 3 interviews to compile this remarkable account of this fascinating institution that flourished as a result of Jim Crow and then quickly collapsed after Jackie Robinson crossed baseball's color line. We not only learn about Negro League legends like Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson, but also about the many lesser-known but stellar stars who would have been All Stars in defense the major leagues if the owners hadn't kept them out. English Language Assignment 3. The book includes brief profiles of about 60 of the greatest players in Negro League history. Peterson also writes about how the black and white owners exploited their players at the same time they provided them with an opportunity to your, make a living (and become celebrities within the black community) playing baseball.

Peterson's book is still worth reading even though there are now many books on the topic, among the igcse english best of which are John Holway's Voices from the defense Great Black Baseball Leagues (1975), Donn Rogosin, Invisible Men: Life in igcse english coursework 3 Baseball's Negro Leagues (1983), Neil Lanctot, Negro League Baseball: The Rise and Ruin of a Black Institution (2004), and the magisterial Baseball's Great Experiment: Jackie Robinson and his Legacy by Jules Tygiel (1983). 36. Jim Piersall Al Hirshberg, Fear Strikes Out (1955). This is one of the most courageous books ever written on any subject. In 1952, Piersall - a 22 year old outfielder for the Boston Red Sox -- had a nervous breakdown. Student Essay. At the time, mental illness was even less understood than it is today, and carried a huge stigma, especially for igcse language public figures like athletes and entertainers. Essay. During his first full season with the Red Sox, Piersall's erratic behavior - taking bows after catching a fly ball, getting into disputes with fans and umpires and occasional fights with opposing players - eventually led to spending six weeks at Westborough State Hospital. Coursework. In his book, Piersall provides a frank and fascinating account of his breakdown and genetics prompts how - with the help of doctors, his wife, and even his teammates - he was able to recover and resume his pro english language coursework, career. The book describes his rise from the sandlots of Waterbury, Connecticut to the big leagues, but it understandably focuses on good reflective essay his psychological condition and his growing self-awareness. Piersall went on to have an outstanding (though not Hall of Fame caliber) and colorful playing career with the igcse english assignment 3 Red Sox, Indians, Senators, Mets, and bind your Angels. Coursework 3. In his 17-year career, he hit .272 and 104 homers, was a two-time All-Star and a great defensive outfielder with a .990 lifetime fielding percentage, among the highest of thesis defense all-time.

Even after his comeback, Piersall occasionally engaged in odd behavior (like trotting backwards around the bases after hitting his 100th home run) that reminded fans that although he had recovered from his breakdown, he was still somewhat crazy in popular parlance. He later became a respected baseball broadcaster. Unfortunately, more people have seen the film version of Fear Strikes Out than have read the book. The 1957 film -- starring Anthony Perkins as Piersall and Karl Malden as his domineering father who pushes his son beyond all reasonable limits -- is coursework 3, awful, although it has some heartbreaking and insightful moments. Perkins was unsuited for the role. He overacted and had no athletic ability. But his tortured acting in Fear Strikes Out must have persuaded Alfred Hitchcock to cast him as Norman Bates in Psycho. 37.

Joshua Prager, The Echoing Green: The Untold Story of student Bobby Thomson, Ralph Branca and the Shot Heard Round the World (2008). Bobby Thomson's 9th inning home run off Brooklyn Dodgers pitcher Ralph Branca in igcse english language coursework 3 a playoff game at is a bane essay, the Polo Grounds on October 3, 1951 that clinched the igcse language assignment 3 National League pennant for the New York Giants is probably the single most celebrated event in baseball history. But was Thomson's achievement compromised by a scandal? Prager, a Wall Street Journal reporter, claims that it was. In mid-season, the Giants had installed a telescope in a block of concrete in behind the centerfield wall in order to steal the opposing catchers' finger signals. The information was relayed to a Giants player in thesis defense powerpoints the bullpen who in turn relayed them to the Giants hitters. Prager insists that, as a result, Thomson knew what pitch Branca was going to igcse english language coursework assignment, throw, thus tarnishing his accomplishment. After Prager first exposed this chicanery in the Wall Street Journal in 2001, Thomson denied that he was the beneficiary of the fix. Others have defended Thomson, saying that even if he did know what pitch to expect, he still had to whack it over the fence for a home run. Prager recreates that incident in fascinating detail. Student. But his book isn't simply about that incident and about Prager's persistent detective work in pursuing the crime.

It is also about the language dramatic 1951 pennant race and, even more interestingly, the personal trajectories of both Thomson and Branca, whose paths often crossed and who actually became friends for dissertation legislation years after they had retired from baseball. 38. Igcse English Coursework Assignment 3. Arnold Rampersad, Jackie Robinson: A Biography (1997). In 1997, America celebrated Robinson with a proliferation of conferences, museum exhibits, and plays. Student. Major League Baseball retired Robinson's number--42--for all teams. President Bill Clinton appeared with Rachel Robinson at Shea Stadium to venerate her late husband. Publishers came out with many books about Robinson that year to cash in on that historical moment. By far the best book that year - and the best biography of Robinson yet published - is Rampersad's. He had a huge advantage. Coursework Assignment. Robinson's widow, Rachel, selected him to write the authorized biography and gave him unprecedented access to his private papers. Good Essay. No matter how much you know about Robinson's storied life, you will learn many new things in this full-scale biography.

Rampersad provides fresh insights into every aspect of igcse language coursework assignment 3 Robinson's story -- family's background in the rural South (he was the grandson of a slave), his upbringing in Pasadena, California, his personal and athletic exploits in junior college and at UCLA, his controversial court-martial during WW2 when he defied local segregation laws in good reflective essay Texas and refused to move to the back of a bus (a decade before Rosa Parks), his days playing pro football and in the Negro Leagues, his tremendous courage and resilience as he broke the major league's color line in 1947 amid death threats and abuse from players and fans alike (he was hit by pitches six times in his first 37 games), his brilliant 10-year playing career with the Dodgers, his willingness to speak out against racism even during his playing days, his deepening involvement with the civil rights movement when his playing days were over language assignment 3 (including a regular column in the Amsterdam News that was only one of many platforms to business legislation, voice his opinions), his business ventures, and english coursework assignment the evolving views about politics and American society, including his frustrations over the slow pace of business baseball integration on the field (especially within the ranks of managers and coaches) and in the executive suites. Robinson is certainly one of the igcse language assignment most heroic and influential figures in American history. Dissertation Business Legislation. Rampersad reminds us, as did the igcse coursework 3 film 42, of the good reflective essay intense physical and emotional abuse that Robinson had to endure not only as a rookie but throughout his playing days and even when he retired, including criticism from some younger civil rights activists who called him an Uncle Tom. Rampersad's remarkable accomplishment is to humanize this iconic figure and to put Robinson's life in the context of changes within society and within baseball. We learn about english language, his relationships with his wife and children, fellow players, civil rights leaders (including Paul Robeson, Martin Luther King and Malcolm X) and politicians (including Dwight Eisenhower, John Kennedy, Richard Nixon, Hubert Humphrey, Barry Goldwater, and Nelson Rockefeller). Robinson, who died in 1972 and age 53, was a principled, passionate, and religious man, and a fierce competitor, who helped change baseball and change America.

Rampersad gives us the biography Robinson deserves. 39. Lawrence Ritter, The Glory of Their Times: The Story of the Early Days of Baseball Told By the genetics Men Who Played It (1966, updated 1984). Ritter was baseball's first great oral historian, creating a genre that many others have since imitated but few (except Donald Honig) have equaled. Igcse English. Ritter brought his tape recorder with him to essay, interview 22 players from the early 20th century, then later added four more players for igcse english language coursework assignment 3 an updated 1984 version. He brilliantly captures the memories of the men who played the game in on leadership the early days. They describe how the english assignment played the game (and how it has changed). They discuss their careers, their teammates, their managers, the london owners, and the fans. Who was the greatest pitcher, the best hitter, or the greatest base runner? Ritter's interviews have different views on these subjects. The topics of igcse english coursework assignment 3 many of their recollections overlap, providing fascinating glimpses about the same players and events - and each other - from different perspectives.

We learn what it was like to play for manager John McGraw and to play with and against thesis Ty Cobb. Language Assignment. Ritter's interviewees include Hall of Famers and utility players, including Sam Crawford, Paul Waner, Fred Snodgrass, Hans Lobert, Rube Bressler, Chief Meyers, Davy Jones, Rube Marquard, Joe Wood, Lefty O'Doul, Jimmy Austin, Goose Goslin, Bill Wambsganss, and Specs Torporcer. Thanks to Ritter's careful editing of on leadership his interviews, the igcse 3 book as a you are there feeling, as the on leadership players and their era comes alive with great stories. 41. Ray Robinson, Matty: An American Hero: Christy Mathewson of the New York Giants (1993).

According to Robinson, Mathewson became America's first authentic sports hero. Until Mathewson, according to Robinson, Americans loved baseball but looked down on ballplayers as uncouth, hard-drinking, skirt-chasing ne'er-do-wells. Mathewson changed this attitude, become what today we'd call a role model. He was good-looking, religious, and one of the few pro ballplayers of his era to assignment, have gone to reflective introduction, college (at Bucknell University, where he was a star pitcher, an english coursework 3 ace field-goal kicker in football, and class president. But none of that would have mattered if Mathewson wasn't also an genetics essay prompts amazing pitcher with pinpoint control.

In his rookie year with the New York Giants, he pitched a no-hitter. He won at least 30 games in four seasons and 373 games in his career. In the 1905 World Series, he threw three shutouts in coursework 3 six days, a feat that has never been equaled. When he died of good essay introduction tuberculosis in 1925 at the age of 45, it touched off a wave of igcse language 3 national mourning that remains without precedent for your dissertation london an American athlete. The World Series was underway, and the game the day after Mathewson's death took on the trappings of a state funeral: officials slowly lowered the igcse english coursework flag to half-mast, each ballplayer wore a black armband, and fans joined together in a chorus of Nearer My God to Thee. Newspaper editorials recalled Mathewson's glorious career but also emphasized his unstinting good sportsmanship and voluntary service in bane essay World War I, where he inhaled poison gas that led to the TB that would eventually kill him. Robinson draws on interviews, press clips, and eyewitness accounts, to bring Mathewson, and those early days of major league baseball, to igcse coursework, life, including the long train trips (with cramped berths and no air conditioning) between games, the small town ballplayers let loose amidst big city vice; and thesis powerpoints the two-bit gambling that eventually led to english coursework assignment 3, the infamous Black Sox scandal in 1919. The sportswriters who uncovered the scandal relied on Mathewson to explain how ballplayers could throw games without being obvious about it. 42.

Robert Ruck, Raceball: How the Major Leagues Colonized the Black and Latin Game (2011) After peaking at dissertation business, 27% of all major leaguers in 1975, African Americans now make up less than one-tenth--a decline unimaginable in other men's pro sports. The number of Latin Americans, by contrast, has exploded to over one-quarter of igcse language coursework 3 all major leaguers and roughly half of those playing in the minors. Science. After reading this book, you'll never look at the business of baseball in the same way. Ruck presents the hard facts of Major League baseball's racist history, from its demolition of the Negro Leagues (without providing owners and players adequate compensation) to the exploitation of desperate players in Cuba, the igcse english Dominican Republic, Mexico, and dissertation legislation other Latin countries. He traces the forgotten link between the great Negro baseball stars, including Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson, and their Caribbean counterparts touring outside the U.S. in igcse 3 the 1940s. This is an eye-opening and wonderfully written expose of the American pastime. 43. Genetics Essay. Alan Schwarz, The Numbers Game: Baseball's Lifelong Fascination with Statistics (2004).

Baseball fans are obsessed with numbers. They use them to compare players, teams, games, and seasons, and to igcse english coursework assignment 3, relive games they watched and essay didn't watch. Players and agents use them to negotiate contracts. Executives, managers, and language assignment 3 coaches use them to reflective, decide which players to english language coursework assignment, scout, draft, promote, play, and legislation trade. This infatuation with statistics is nothing new, as Schwarz shows in this book that manages to igcse english assignment, be so wonderfully readable that even math-phobes will love it. This is not a book of statistics but a book about statistics - specifically, a history of baseball statistics since the genetics essay prompts sport's early days in the mid-1800s. Actually, it isn't really about baseball statistics but about the fascinating people who invented, used, and igcse english assignment 3 popularized them. These include stats pioneer Henry Chadwick, who invented the first box score and persuaded others that some statistics were more important than others. Another is Allan Roth, who persuaded Dodgers president Branch Rickey that the use of statistics could help him improve the team.

In the good introduction 1940s, Roth was first full-time statistician ever hired by a major league club. Coursework Assignment. If you saw the film 42, you know that Rickey traded star player Dixie Walker, a Southern racist, to the Pirates soon after Jackie Robinson joined the team. Good Reflective Introduction. What the film doesn't tell you is that it was Roth's statistics and diagrams that convinced Rickey that Walker was no longer pulling the ball and igcse english coursework assignment was on a downhill trajectory, making his departure from the essay team less troublesome. We also learn about the founders of the Elias Sports Bureau and STATS Inc., who turned gathering baseball statistics into profitable businesses. Igcse Coursework 3. Then there's Bill James, who in genetics essay 1980, coined the language coursework term sabermetrics (in honor of the genetics prompts numbers-obsessed members of the then-young Society for American Baseball Research) as the search for objective knowledge about baseball and revolutionized baseball by becoming the modern era's Chadwick. One of the igcse language best parts of the reflective introduction book is Schwarz's history of the Baseball Encyclopedia and english coursework 3 the use of early computer in compiling baseball fans' first comprehensive Bible and good essay introduction the efforts by editors to english language coursework assignment 3, fix errors in defense baseball recordkeeping, despite the ongoing resistance of igcse english coursework assignment baseball's establishment to legislation, change erroneous records. Schwarz devotes an absorbing chapter to the importance of luck (or random error) in baseball. 44.

Brad Snyder, A Well-Paid Slave: Curt Flood's Fight for Free Agency in Professional Sports (2006). Flood put his career at risk when he challenged baseball's reserve clause under federal antitrust law. He lost his lawsuit against the baseball establishment before the U.S. Supreme Court (Flood v. English Language Assignment. Kuhn, 1972), but he set the stage for a battle that the players ultimately won, even though Flood's own career was destroyed by his courageous stand. Snyder's biography of Flood reminds us what an outstanding player he was -- 1,861 hits, a .293 lifetime batting average, seven Gold Gloves awards, and a three time All-Star during his 13-year (1958-71) career. But those numbers wouldn't merit a full-scale biography without Flood's heroic and your dissertation london tragic battle against baseball's system of indentured servitude. English Language Coursework Assignment. Flood began his baseball career just as the civil rights movement was gaining momentum and he absorbed its tenets.

Brought up in Oakland, California, Flood was shocked by the Jim Crow segregation he encountered in 1956 as an 18-year rookie assigned by the Cincinnati Reds to introduction, its High Point, N.C. Igcse Assignment 3. minor league team. Like other black players who joined the good introduction majors within a decade after Jackie Robinson's debut in 1947, Flood faced racism by fans, team executives, and white players. In 1969, the St. Language 3. Louis Cardinals - with whom he'd excelled for 12 seasons - trade him to the Phillies. Because of the reserve clause, Flood had no voice in the matter, but he refused to go.

Flood had a lot to lose. Bind Your Dissertation. He was making $90,000 a year - a huge salary at the time. But he acted on principle. Unlike most ballplayers, he was willing to rock the boat. He had attended an NAACP rally in Mississippi, complained about his segregated training camp in Florida, and moved into an all-white neighborhood in the Bay Area. Players union director Marvin Miller didn't think the english language coursework 3 time was ripe to challenge the reserve clause, but he nevertheless persuaded the thesis defense powerpoints union's board to igcse coursework assignment 3, bankroll Flood's lawsuit against MLB and to hire former Supreme Court justice Arthur Goldberg (a one-time labor lawyer) to handle the case. On Dec. 24, 1969, Flood wrote a letter to Commissioner Bowie Kuhn that said: After 12 years in thesis the major leagues, I do not feel that I am a piece of english language 3 property to be bought and sold irrespective of my wishes. Sportscaster Howard Cosell asked Flood: It's been written, Curt, that you're a man who makes $90,000 a year, which isn't exactly slave wages. What's your retort to that? Flood responded: A well-paid slave is nonetheless a slave.

The next year, when the case reached the student essay U.S. District Court in Manhattan, two of Flood's key witnesses were Jackie Robinson and Hank Greenberg. Both super-stars were angry and retired after their long-time employers (the Dodgers and Tigers, respectively) tried to igcse english language coursework assignment, trade when their glory days were over. Your Dissertation. Not a single active player testified on Flood's behalf. The District Court judge ruled against floor as did the igcse language Supremes two years later. Eventually, the union overturned the is a bane reserve clause, but it was too late to help Flood. As Snyder recounts, Flood's post-baseball career was a shambles, destroyed by family troubles, alcohol, and economic problems. He died in 1997 of throat cancer at age 59. Snyder's book will make you admire Flood the fighter if not Flood the coursework assignment man. It is also filled with mesmerizing stories and colorful figures, including a harsh word for the renowned Goldberg, whose oral argument for Flood at student essay on leadership, the Supreme Court was, according to his co-counsel, one of the worst he'd ever heard.

In 1998, Congress passed and President Clinton signed the Curt Flood Act, which removes baseball's immunity from igcse language coursework 3, antitrust laws. But few of today's players, who have benefited enormously from Flood's sacrifice, probably know who he is. Snyder's book, and the 2011 HBO documentary, The Curious Case of Curt Flood, may help to dissertation, resurrect the igcse coursework assignment 3 memory and reputation of bind dissertation this baseball pioneer. 46. Al Stump, Cobb: A Biography (1994). If all you knew about Ty Cobb was what you learned at igcse coursework assignment, the Ty Cobb Museum, located in his hometown of Royston, Georgia, you'd think he was a competitive player, a superlative hitter and base stealer, and a humanitarian. I've visited the museum twice and science didn't see anything there about his dirty playing, his racism, or his ugly personality that led most of his fellow players to dislike him. But thanks to Al Stump's biography - and the 1994 Hollywood movie based on the book that starred Tommy Lee Jones as Cobb and english language coursework assignment Robert Wuhl as Stump - few Americans, including baseball fans, have any illusions about Cobb's dark and self-destructive personality. Cobb hired Stump to ghost-write his 1961 autobiography, My Life in reflective Baseball. While traveling with and interviewing Cobb over a ten month period, Stump discovered that the Georgia Peach was a rotten tomato.

The first book was a cover-up, Stump later admitted. I felt very bad about it. English Language. I felt I wasn't being a good newspaperman. No longer beholden to good, his subject, Stump wrote a second biography that revealed Cobb's racism, violence, cruelty, and igcse language egomania. Indeed, Cobb was probably psychotic, and Stump's second biography probes the business roots of english language coursework assignment 3 his troubles as well as his extraordinary talent as a player whose lifetime .367 batting average will never be matched. 48. Business. Bill Veeck (with Ed Linn), Veeck As In Wreck (1962). -- Veeck, who at different times owned the St. Igcse English Language Coursework 3. Louis Browns, Cleveland Indians, and dissertation business Chicago White Sox, was probably the only socialist to own a major league baseball team. (He voted several times for Norman Thomas, socialist candidate for president). Veeck was a brilliant entrepreneur and showman who preferred sitting in igcse language coursework the bleachers to thesis powerpoints, the box seats. This biography reveals Veeck's battles with his fellow owners and the many innovations (some pretty wacky) he brought to baseball.

Paul Dickson's Bill Veeck: Baseball's Greatest Maverick (2012) is a serious and well-written biography of this pioneering baseball figure. 49. George Will, Men at Work: The Craft of Baseball (1990). I hate George Will. I hate his right-wing politics. I hate his elitism and his disdain for democracy.

I even hate his bow-ties. A political columnist for the Washington Post and frequent guest on TV's political talk shows, Will is a repulsive snob in love with the sound of his own voice. So it troubles me to admit that in language coursework 3 1990 Will wrote a marvelous baseball book that has stood the test of time. He takes readers inside the student on leadership game through the eyes of players Tony Gwynn, Cal Ripken, and Orel Hershiser, and manager Tony LaRussa. Will shatters the myth that baseball is a slow, dull game. Igcse English Language Coursework Assignment. He reveals that at any given moment, there are hundreds of things happening on the playing field, most of them subtle and genetics invisible, particularly the igcse coursework choices that managers and student on leadership players have to make to deal with the many possibilities they have to english coursework assignment, consider with each pitch.

The calculations they make - about reflective essay, what pitch to throw, where fielders should be located, whether to anticipate that a runner will try to steal, how the igcse english assignment wind and the weather will affect the play, who should be warming up in the bullpen, whether to bind dissertation london, bring in a pinch hitter or pinch runner, and many more - are based on knowledge, experience, and gut instinct. Will's eye for telling details is igcse language assignment, remarkable and defense his prose is language 3, even lively. La Russa describes why he moves his outfielders when a particular slugger comes up to bat with a runner on genetics second. Hershiser, outstanding hurler, tells Will: Control without stuff is far better than stuff without control. And Will, an astute observer, notes: Baseball is not, like basketball or hockey or soccer, a game of steady flows. Rather, it is an episodic game of explosive exertions. Two decades before Moneyball, Will put baseball in a whole new light. I still detest him, but I admire his love for english coursework and knowledge of prompts baseball. 50. Joel Zoss and John Bowman, Diamonds in the Rough: The Untold History of Baseball (2004).

Zoss and Bowman are skeptics, but not cynics. They love baseball but they challenge much of its conventional wisdom. Igcse English Coursework Assignment 3. With telling anecdotes and a great sense of the game's history, they provide an unsentimental, myth-busting, and unsparing look at our national pastime. They tackle a mind-boggling range of topics, including baseball's origins, the contributions of good introduction minorities and women, the evolution of umpiring, baseball during wartime, baseball's influence on literature and music, substance abuse, on- and off-field tragedy, Abraham Lincoln's ties with baseball, and even Russia's claim to have invented baseball. Peter Dreier teaches politics and chairs the Urban Environmental Policy Department at Occidental College.

His most recent book is The 100 Greatest Americans of the 20th Century: A Social Justice Hall of Fame (Nation Books, 2012).

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The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: An Overview of the Law and Coverage-Related Issues. By Stacey L. McGraw and coursework assignment Stacey E. Rufe [1] March 21, 2014. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) was enacted in science bane essay, 1977 in response to revelations of widespread bribery of foreign officials by U.S. companies in order to win business. [2] FCPA enforcement actions by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Department of Justice (DOJ), which share enforcement authority for the FCPA, have increased in recent years. For example, while the english language coursework assignment, SEC’s website lists a total of 15 enforcement actions between 1978 and 2000, it lists 15 enforcement actions in 2011 alone. [3] The DOJ lists four enforcement actions in all of 2002; four DOJ enforcement actions were announced or filed in January 2014 alone. Ongoing investigations have been reported or disclosed by good reflective introduction, large companies from across the english language, spectrum, including large drug manufacturers, computer companies, media firms, and retailers, among others. FCPA investigations and the investigative costs, defense costs, penalties, and fines associated with those investigations can be significant. Powerpoints? For example, since 2008, Avon Products, Inc. has spent about $340 million in legal and related costs in connection with an investigation alleging that Avon violated the FCPA by paying or giving improper gifts to government officials in China and other countries. [4] In January 2014, Alcoa World Alumina LLC announced that it had agreed to plead guilty and english language coursework 3 pay $223 million in criminal fines and legislation forfeitures to resolve charges that it paid bribes to a government official in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Alcoa also settled a parallel action by the SEC in which it paid an additional $161 million in english coursework assignment 3, disgorgement. [5] Given the bind, increased enforcement of the FCPA and the duration and cost of english language assignment 3, investigations and related litigation, it is science bane, important that counsel for insurers and insureds are familiar with the language assignment, law and the insurance coverage issues that may be implicated by FCPA investigations and dissertation business legislation related litigation. The FCPA contains two main components: the anti-bribery provisions, which prohibit payments to foreign officials to obtain or retain business, and the accounting provisions that require issuers to make and keep accurate books and records and to maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. The accounting provisions also prohibit individuals and businesses from knowingly falsifying books and records or knowingly failing to implement internal controls.

Persons and entities subject to the FCPA include “domestic concerns,” which are U.S. persons and businesses. English Coursework? [6] “Issuers,” which are U.S. and foreign public companies listed on U.S. Genetics Essay? stock exchanges or which are required to file periodic reports with the SEC, also are subject to the FCPA. [7] In addition, certain foreign persons and businesses acting while in the territory of the United States may be subject to the FCPA. [8] As noted above, enforcement authority for the FCPA is shared by the SEC and the DOJ. The DOJ has an FCPPA unit within the Criminal Division’s Fraud Section. English Language Coursework? It has criminal enforcement authority over issuers as well as criminal and civil enforcement authority over essay on leadership domestic concerns for the FCPA’s anti-bribery provisions. The DOJ maintains a website dedicated to the FCPA and enforcement issues and questions. Igcse English Coursework Assignment? [9]

The SEC has authority for your, civil enforcement of the FCPA over issuers and their officers, directors, employees, agents, and stockholders acting on the issuer’s behalf. Igcse Coursework Assignment 3? The SEC has a specialized FCPA unit with attorneys in Washington, D.C., and in regional offices. The SEC’s FCPA Unit also maintains a website, which contains links to all SEC enforcement actions involving the FCPA, organized by year. [10] Other organizations involved in enforcement include the Internal Revenue Service, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which has its own dedicated FCPA unit. Generally, the anti-bribery provisions make it unlawful to offer, pay, promise to pay, or authorize payment of defense powerpoints, money, or to offer, give, or promise to give anything of value to a foreign official in order to obtain or retain business or secure an improper business advantage. [11] Jurisdiction. The anti-bribery provisions can apply to conduct both inside and outside the United States. Igcse English Language Coursework 3? When the FCPA originally was enacted, its anti-bribery provisions applied only to U.S. nationals and to U.S. firms and issuers, which can be U.S. Student On Leadership? or foreign companies. Congress amended the FCPA in 1998 to expand its scope. The anti-bribery provisions now prohibit any acts taken in furtherance of a foreign bribery scheme that occurs in the United States or uses any means of interstate communication, even if the actual communication takes place intrastate. [12] Under the alternative jurisdiction provisions of the FCPA enacted in 1998, U.S. companies or persons are subject to igcse english coursework assignment the anti-bribery provisions even if they act outside the United States and genetics even if no means of interstate commerce is used. [13] Business purpose test.

The FCPA applies only to payments intended to influence a foreign official to use his or her position “in order to assist . . English Language? . in obtaining or retaining business for or with, or directing business to, any person.” [14] This “business purpose” test has been broadly interpreted to include bribes made in the course of business or to gain a business advantage. For example, in good introduction, United States v. Kay , the Fifth Circuit held that. Congress intended for the FCPA to language assignment 3 apply broadly to payments intended to assist the student on leadership, payor, either directly or indirectly, in obtaining or retaining business for some person, and that bribes paid to language assignment foreign officials to secure illegally reduced customs and tax liability constitute a type of payment that can fall within this broad coverage. [15] To constitute a violation of the FCPA, a payment must be made “corruptly,” [16] which means that there must be intent to wrongfully influence the recipient. Thus, a violation may be found even if no bribe is essay, ultimately paid, if the identity of the recipient is not known, or even if the company does not ultimately receive a benefit as a result of the payment. The intent to english language coursework assignment influence corruptly is genetics prompts, sufficient. To establish criminal liability of an individual under the anti-bribery provisions, he or she must have acted willfully. [17] “Willfully” generally means that the person must act with a “bad purpose” or knowledge that the conduct is unlawful. [18] The person need not necessarily know that his or her conduct violates the igcse coursework, FCPA specifically. [19] Proof of willfulness is good, relevant only to violations by individuals; willfulness is not required to establish corporate criminal or civil liability. An improper payment may be anything of value. [20] This includes not only cash payments; it may also include travel expenses, entertainment expenses, or expensive gifts. Gifts may also be prohibited, particularly if they are lavish or excessive. Likewise, foreign charitable contributions are not prohibited under the english coursework, FCPA unless made for the purpose of improperly influencing a foreign official or made without a proper vetting of the foreign charity.

Further, an improper payment need not be made directly to science bane essay a foreign official; payments to friends or family members of an official may also violate the FCPA, if made in order to influence the language coursework, official. [21] Who is a foreign official? Under the FCPA, “foreign official” means. any officer or employee of a foreign government or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any such government or department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of prompts, any such government or department, agency or instrumentality, or for or on behalf of english language assignment 3, any such public international organization. [22] The term “instrumentality” has been construed broadly and may include state-owned companies or other state-controlled entities. [23] The ownership, control, status, and essay function will be examined to english coursework assignment 3 determine whether an entity is an agency or instrumentality of bind your dissertation, a foreign government. “Foreign official” includes employees and representatives of “public international organizations.” [24] These are organizations that are specifically designated by english assignment 3, executive order under the International Organizations Immunities Act, 22 U.S.C. Student On Leadership? § 288. [25] Currently, this includes organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and the Organization of American States. Payments to igcse coursework assignment third parties.

The FCPA specifically prohibits improper payments to foreign officials made through third parties or intermediaries. London? It prohibits payments to “any person, while knowing that all or a portion of such money or thing of value will be offered, given, or promised, directly or indirectly” to a foreign official. [26] Accordingly, liability may not be avoided simply by outsourcing the payment of the bribe to a third party. Conduct is considered “knowing” if the person is aware that there is a high probability that an illegal payment is going to language coursework assignment 3 occur. Bind Dissertation London? [27] Congress intended to impose liability not only on those with actual knowledge but also on those who purposefully avoid actual knowledge“head in the sand” conduct. [28] Willful blindness to FCPA violations does not protect a company or individual from liability under the statute. Affirmative defenses. There are two possible affirmative defenses under the anti-bribery provisions: the “local law” defense and the “reasonable and bona fide business expenditure” defense. [29] The local law defense is applicable when the company can show that a payment was lawful under the language coursework assignment, written laws of the your dissertation london, foreign country at issue. [30] The “reasonable and bona fide business expenditure” defense applies if the company can show that the money spent was reasonable, bona fide, and directly related to the performance of a contract, or marketing, promotion, or product demonstration. English Language Coursework Assignment 3? [31] In addition to these affirmative defenses, the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA also contain a narrow exception for thesis powerpoints, “facilitating or expediting payments” made in furtherance of routine governmental action that involves nondiscretionary acts. [32] Payments made under imminent threat of physical harm do not violate the language coursework 3, FCPA because there is dissertation legislation, no corrupt purpose, but economic coercion is not sufficient to excuse an otherwise improper payment. [33] This exception, however, is in conflict with many local anticorruption laws.

Statute of limitations. No specific statute of limitations is provided for in the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA; therefore, the general five-year limitations period applies to substantive criminal violations of the igcse english assignment, act. [34] In cases involving conspiracies, the government may be able to reach conduct occurring before the science is a bane, five-year limitations period because generally the igcse english, government need only prove that a single act in furtherance of the essay, conspiracy occurred within the limitations period. The limitations period also may be extended by a tolling agreement, or the government may apply for an extension of up to three years in igcse language assignment, order to obtain evidence from foreign countries. [35] The five-year limitations period also applies to is a bane essay civil actions for penalties. [36] However, the SEC may bring actions for equitable relief or disgorgement of ill-gotten gains outside the five-year limitations period. English Coursework Assignment 3? Again, the limitations period may be extended by genetics essay, a tolling agreement, and in cases involving foreign individuals, the limitations period is tolled for any period during which the individuals are not found within the United States. [37] The FCPA’s accounting provisions contain two main components. First, the books and records provisions require issuers to make and keep records that accurately and fairly reflect an issuer’s transactions and dispositions of assets. [38] Books and records provisions are intended to prevent the mischaracterization or concealment of bribes. Second, the FCPA contains provisions regulating internal controls, which require that issuers devise and maintain a system of igcse english assignment 3, internal accounting controls sufficient to ensure management’s control, authority, and responsibility over the firm’s assets. [39] There can be civil liability under the accounting provisions for both companies and individuals. In addition, both individuals and genetics companies can be criminally liable for knowingly failing to comply with the igcse language assignment 3, FCPA’s accounting provisions. [40] However, the FCPA’s accounting provisions apply only to issuers; the science is a essay, accounting provisions do not apply to private companies. [41] Penalties, Sanctions, and igcse english language assignment 3 Remedies.

Corporations and other business entities are subject to fines of up to $2 million for each knowing violation of the anti-bribery provisions. [42] Individuals are subject to a fine of introduction, up to $100,000 and imprisonment for language coursework assignment, up to five years for willful violations. [43] For each willful violation of the accounting provisions, business entities are subject to science a fine of up to $25 million. Individuals are subject to a fine of up to $5 million and imprisonment for igcse english coursework assignment, up to 20 years for criminal violations. [44] Additional fines may be imposed by the courts under the Alternative Fines Act, 18 U.S.C. § 3571 (d). The DOJ may pursue civil actions for anti-bribery violations by domestic concerns and their affiliated persons and by foreign nationals and companies for violations while in the United States. Dissertation Business? The SEC may pursue civil actions against coursework assignment 3, issuers and prompts their affiliated persons for violations of the igcse coursework assignment, accounting provisions. A civil penalty of up to $10,000 per violation is available for violations of the anti-bribery provisions (for both entities and individuals). [45] For violations of the accounting provisions, the SEC may obtain a civil penalty of up to a certain specified dollar amount dependent on the egregiousness of the violation, or the gross amount of the pecuniary gain to the defendantwhichever is greater. [46] There also may be collateral consequences resulting from FCPA violations, including suspension or debarment from contracting with the federal government, cross-debarment by multilateral development banks (such as the World Bank), and science suspension or revocation of certain export privileges. Insurance Coverage Issues.

Notice. Many, if not most, FCPA investigations originate as internal investigations by the companies. After an internal investigation is completed, a company may determine that it should “self-report” to the SEC or DOJ, at which point the SEC or DOJ may commence its own investigation. A company conducting an internal investigation should consider when it is appropriate or necessary to give notice to its insurer of igcse language coursework, a claim or potential claim. Different policies contain different notice requirements, so it is student essay on leadership, important for insureds and insurers to language assignment be familiar with the notice language and student requirements of their policies and to proceed accordingly. Claim. Whether a government investigation constitutes a claim and when a claim arises depends on the language in the specific insurance policy. Some policies define “claim” to include government investigations, but often only if such investigation is igcse, commenced by a formal order of investigation, subpoena, or other such formal document.

Because many FCPA investigations begin informally or possibly with self-reporting after an internal investigation, a claim may not arise until long after a company first becomes aware of possible FCPA violations. Moreover, a company may choose to agree to cooperate with the SEC or DOJ, thus delaying or avoiding a subpoena or other formal compulsory process or procedure that would constitute a claim under the science is a bane, company’s insurance policy. Under some policies, an FCPA or other government investigation may not constitute a claim under any circumstances. As always, it’s important to be familiar with the particular policy language. Worldwide coverage. FCPA investigations may be followed by or proceed concurrently with investigations in other countries, such as bribery investigations under the United Kingdom’s Bribery Act 2010, which took effect in July 2011. Language? Coverage for such foreign investigations may be available under policies that provide worldwide coverage, if the matter is otherwise covered based on the language of the on leadership, particular policy. Selection of defense counsel. Insurance policies that do not contain a duty to english 3 defend typically provide that the insured must obtain the is a essay, insurer’s consent to igcse english assignment its selection of defense counsel.

Because, as noted above, defense counsel may have been retained long before a claim arises and dissertation legislation is tendered to the insurance carrier, there may be issues for insurers and insureds to negotiate with respect to the choice of defense counsel, the rates charged, and igcse language coursework assignment 3 possible coverage of pre-notice or pre-tender defense expenses. Fines and penalties. The amounts payable for violations of the FCPA are fines and penalties, which typically are not covered by professional liability insurance. However, there may be policies or endorsements available that provide limited coverage for certain FCPA fines or penalties. In addition, some policies may provide limited coverage for FCPA-related defense costs, even in the absence of coverage for the fines and penalties themselves. Follow-on litigation. Dissertation? As in other governmental investigations, an FCPA enforcement action often will trigger follow-on actions, such as class actions by shareholders alleging securities fraud, derivative actions alleging breach of fiduciary duty and igcse english coursework assignment 3 based on the same conduct alleged in dissertation, the FCPA investigation, or congressional investigations. These types of lawsuits typically are covered by language 3, directors’ and officers’ liability policies. Even if these actions ultimately are unsuccessful, they add to the overall costs of defending an FCPA investigation. Exclusion for dissertation business legislation, intentional acts and imputation. Exclusions barring coverage for intentional, willful, or fraudulent acts may apply to FCPA matters.

Many times, these exclusions require a final adjudication of intentional or fraudulent conduct. However, if such a final adjudication occurs, the insured may be required to reimburse the insurer for any defense costs advanced on igcse english language coursework, its behalf. However, with respect to the application of exclusions, such as the exclusions for good reflective introduction, intentional acts, insurance policies may contain non-imputation clauses providing that the knowledge or conduct of igcse english coursework 3, one insured cannot be imputed to other insureds for purposes of determining whether the dissertation legislation, exclusion applies. Igcse Coursework 3? A policy also may provide that only essay introduction certain persons’ knowledge can be imputed to an insured entity. For example, some policies provide that only the chief executive officer’s or chief financial officer’s knowledge may be imputed to the company. FCPA investigations and enforcement actions are on igcse language 3, the rise and, along with parallel shareholder litigation, may lead to defense powerpoints increased exposure for both insureds and insurers. Igcse English Assignment? Counsel for insureds and insurers should be aware of the related insurance coverage issues as they apply in the context of FCPA enforcement actions and related litigation. Keywords: litigation, insurance, coverage, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, FCPA, anti-bribery, fines and penalties, exclusions. [1] Stacey L. McGraw is a partner in the Washington, D.C., office and bind london Stacey E. Rufe is an associate in the Richmond, Virginia, office of Troutman Sanders, LLP, where they both represent insurers in complex coverage disputes and litigation. The views stated in igcse, this article are the views of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of Troutman Sanders, LLP, or its clients.

[2] The 2012 Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act published by the Criminal Division of the U.S. DOJ and the Enforcement Division of the SEC is the best source for additional information about the FCPA. See also Mike Koehler, “The Story of the powerpoints, FCPA,” 73(5) Ohio St. Igcse English Language Coursework? L.J. 93238 (2012) (providing history of the drafting and passage of the FCPA). [4] Serena Ng Anna Prior, “SEC Warning Sinks Avon,” Wall St. J. , Nov. 1, 2013. [5] “Alcoa to Pay $384 Million to Settle Bribery Charges,” N.Y. Times , Jan.

9, 2014. [18] See United States v. Kay , 513 F.3d 432, 44748 (5th Cir. 2007) (discussing common-law definitions of “willfully” and student level of knowledge required to establish willful violation of the FCPA). [19] See Kay , 513 F.3d at english, 448 (holding that defendant need not know the terms of statute and reflective introduction know that he was violating statute in order to have “willfully” violated the FCPA). [21] See, e.g. , United States v. Liebo , 923 F.2d 1308, 131112 (8th Cir. 1991) (sufficient evidence existed for jury to conclude that gifts given to official’s cousin were given “corruptly” to “obtain or retain business” in english coursework assignment 3, violation of FCPA). [23] See, e.g. , United States v. Student Essay On Leadership? Aguilar , 783 F. Supp.

2d 1108 (C.D. Cal. 2011) (motion to dismiss denied because electric utility wholly owned by Mexican government may be considered an coursework 3 “instrumentality” of a foreign government within the science is a bane, meaning of FCPA). Copyright 2017, American Bar Association. All rights reserved. This information or any portion thereof may not be copied or disseminated in any form or by any means or downloaded or stored in an electronic database or retrieval system without the express written consent of the American Bar Association. The views expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the American Bar Association, the Section of Litigation, this committee, or the employer(s) of the author(s).

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How I Ghostwrite Other Authors’ Books. Now, when I go to igcse language bookstores I see them automatically, the little with ‘s and and’ s next to celebrity authors’ names. Prompts! However, when I first found out a friend had ghostwritten a bestselling book by a well known author, I didn’t know what the word “ghostwrite” meant. I certainly didn’t know that nearly every celebrity bestseller had actually been written by a ghostwriter. Photo by hobvias sudoneighm (creative commons) According to Dictionary.com, the definition of a ghostwriter is: a person who writes one or numerous speeches, books, articles, etc. for another person who is named or presumed to igcse english language coursework be the london author. Okay, but what does that really mean?

If you go to the bestseller list you’ll find a dozen books that were actually written by ghostwriters, especially in the non-fiction section. Tom Clancy? He works with ghostwriters. James Patterson? Yep. Igcse English Language Coursework Assignment 3! How else do you think he’s able to release six books a year? When Sheryl Sandburg, the genetics prompts COO of Facebook, published her bestselling book Lean In , she used a ghostwriter, too. How about President Obama, Hilary Clinton, Mariano Rivera, and Snooki? Yes, they used ghostwriters to write their books, too. Those people don’t have time to write a book! (Especially, Snooki.

That makeup doesn’t do itself!) (Technically, some of english language coursework these ghostwriters would be considered “co-authors” if they get credit on the cover of the book. However, the process is essay, pretty much the same, whether the ghostwriter is named or not.) Here’s the surprising truth: The vast majority of books by celebrity authors are written by ghostwriters (approaching 100 percent). The question is, is it ethical? (share that on Twitter?) For the last three years, ghostwriting has been my primary job. When people find out what I do, they almost always ask me, “Do you feel bad that you’re not getting credit for your writing?” My answer: no, I don’t feel bad about being a ghostwriter at all, for two reasons: First, it’s not my idea.

When I ghostwrite a book, I’m sharing someone else’s original thought, not mine. They came up with the content. Also, most of coursework 3 my clients are fantastic public speakers, people who have been talking about their ideas for ten years or more. Genetics Essay! My job is just to english coursework assignment take their life message and put it into book form. Honestly, it’s a great job, because for each book I write, I feel like I get to sit at the feet of dissertation business legislation a world class expert and soak up their knowledge. Second, ghostwriting allows me to get paid for coursework assignment, my writing.

Few writers can say they can provide for student on leadership, themselves and english 3 their families through their writing. Would I prefer to live off my own books? Sure, which is why I still do my own writing at the same time. However, ghostwriting has been a great way to apprentice myself to the craft, not to mention learn from some pretty amazing people. Of course, there are certain situations where I don’t think ghostwriting is ethical. For example, when an “author” doesn’t give any input in the book past the original idea, is that ethical? When they don’t even read the book, let alone give feedback about it’s content, is that okay? In my opinion, that’s not an bind, ethical way to approach ghostwriting.

Personally, I only work with people who want to be involved in the process, who will work with me to make sure it’s their book , that I’ve correctly captured their ideas, that the voice is still theirs, not just some imitation. How do you become a ghostwriter? That’s a tricky question. All the ghostwriters I know got into igcse coursework 3, it accidentally, and london my story is no different. Coursework 3! I was helping a mentor edit his book. As I read through the draft, it became clear that the book needed a full rewrite. However, while the author had written books before, he was too busy leading a large company to essay take on igcse language coursework assignment 3, the writing process.

And so I offered to do it for him. How can you become a ghostwriter, though? First, ghostwriting is a referral business, and most of your projects will come through people you’ve already written for. The real question is how do you get your first job. Here are a few ideas: Network . Most projects come from thesis powerpoints busy leaders, including business owners, doctors, public speakers, pastors, and politicians. If you tell enough of these sorts of people you’re a writer, a few of them may tell you they’re working on igcse language 3, a book. If they’re not open to good introduction having you ghostwrite their book at first, you can offer to help edit or even just critique their book. Who knows? It might turn into your first project. Igcse English Language Coursework Assignment! Write in multiple different genres.

If you just write fiction, write a few good non-fiction pieces. Reach out to business legislation your local newspaper and english ask if there’s a chance you could work on some freelance project on spec (meaning you’d only essay, get paid if they printed the piece). Start a blog. Showcase your best writing in public. Your blog is your resume. Igcse Language Assignment 3! Don’t write for free, but don’t overcharge either.

You can research how much ghostwriters charge online. For your first project, choose whatever number that you think your client will accept, even if that’s on the low side. On Leadership! Remember, you’ll be able to charge much more for your second book. Igcse Assignment! Consider charging hourly . Most ghostwriters charge on bind your london, a per 3, project basis, but for your first book, if your client is open to it, consider charging hourly. You don’t know how much time it will take and essay introduction it’s likely your client won’t know either. Ask agents . Agents are often approached by people looking for ghostwriters.

If you know any agents, why not ask them if they have any advice about how to english language coursework get into ghostwriting. Defense! Perhaps they’ll give you an assignment, or even a chance to igcse english coursework 3 write a proposal for science is a bane, a new book, which, if accepted, you could be hired to write. If you’re thinking about ghostwriting a non-fiction book, I’ve included a general plan below. Note that this plan is best when you’re working with an author who already has a message, especially with authors who do public speaking. Coursework! If you’re helping them create the content, you’re acting more as a co-author, and so this plan may not be as helpful.

Before you can start writing, you need to know what the book you’re writing is about. The first step, then, is to collaborate with the author to create an outline of his or her book. You should also ask the author to recommend several similar titles which you can read as research. Defense Powerpoints! (And if they say there are no books like the igcse english language coursework assignment 3 one they want to write, they probably aren’t reading enough. In this case, find similar titles on your own.) 2. Collect Written and Recorded Materials. Many authors will already have recordings of student on leadership speeches, lectures, sermons, or other talks. Collect as many of these recordings as you can, especially recordings that apply to your topic. The author will likely also have notes or even entire articles about the topic. Make sure to english language 3 collect these as well. Interviewing your author is defense powerpoints, a ghostwriter’s most important task.

An hourlong interview can make up an entire chapter in a non-fiction book. The better your questions and english language coursework 3 the more you can draw out of your client about the content of their book during the interview process, the easier the good reflective introduction actual writing will be. Since this is such a crucial step, make sure you have a good recorder for the job. And don’t forget to have a backup recorder as well. I usually record both on my phone and igcse language assignment my laptop (even then, I’ve still lost recordings before). If you’re interviewing your client over phone, you can call them using skype and record it using Call Recorder. Next, transcribe the reflective introduction recorded interviews from audio to text. Transcribing is language, a time consuming process. It generally takes four to essay five hours to transcribe one hour of recording. I used to transcribe interviews on my own, but now I hire someone to igcse english language coursework transcribe the dissertation business legislation interviews for me. The transcriptions of your interviews will become the backbone of your book, which is why it’s so important to get a good interview.

You will likely have to do a lot of re-writing and editing to make it fit into a book format, but as you rewrite, make sure to maintain the igcse english coursework 3 author’s voice. Your job isn’t to write a perfect book. Your job is to write your client’s book. Once the student initial draft is written, give it to the author for feedback. Igcse English Coursework 3! Work with the author to make sure the book sounds like them. Essay! If you come to any disagreements about content or phrasings, remember, they always win . It’s their book, not yours. 7. Copyediting, Proofreading, and english language 3 Beta Reading. As with any book, it will require a lot of editing to make it ready for is a essay, publication. Here’s a good guide on igcse language 3, how to edit until your book is finished. There’s something powerful about helping someone share their message with the world. Ghostwriting is dissertation business legislation, a bit like being a surrogate mother.

You have to do the hard work of bearing the message and bringing the book into igcse english language coursework 3, the world. Then, when it’s finally finished, you have to say goodbye. Still, even then, there’s this lingering feeling that it’s your baby. Ghostwriting requires sacrifice. You may have to sacrifice your creative freedom and science is a bane right to coursework credit. Dissertation Business Legislation! However, for language coursework assignment, each of the books I’ve worked on, that sacrifice has been worth it.

I love helping someone share their life message, especially when they probably couldn’t have done it without me. Besides, when people ask me what I do for work at parties, I never get tired of bane essay explaining the strange, secret world of ghostwriting! Ghostwriting is just writing someone else’s story and capturing their life message, someone who might not be able to write it for themselves. But you don’t need to be a ghostwriter to do that. For today’s practice, choose someone you admire, whether it’s a friend, family member, or well known celebrity. Igcse English Language! Then, write a short story about their life from their perspective.

Afterward, you may even want to thesis share it with them! Write for fifteen minutes.When you’re finished, post your practice in the comments section. And if you share, be sure to leave feedback for your fellow writers. This is an excellent post, Joe! On a subject I’ve never read about before. English Language! Thanks for thesis defense, generously sharing your experience.

I’m at work on a ghostwriting project that really excites me. Nice to have you back in language coursework 3, the U.S.A.! Exciting to hear about your ghostwriting project, Eva! Thanks. Yes, it’s great to be back. #128578; Great stuff Joe. Thesis! From a fellow ghostwriter. Thanks for writing about igcse coursework assignment 3 this. I’ve been interested in ghostwriting since I read Robert Harris’ The Ghost, which is about a ghostwriter working on the memoirs of a former British prime minister. (It’s a really good book and I’d highly recommend it.)

Interesting! I’ll check it out. Thanks Natalie! This was fascinating! I’d actually been meaning to ask you about how you get into ghostwriting, so perfect timing. Reflective Introduction! #128521; I love perfect timing. Igcse English Assignment! #128578; Thanks for sharing, Joe. This is bind dissertation london, a topic I’ve wondered about a ton the last few years! You bet, Emily. I hope this helped explain a few things. I wrote a letter for someone once.

She was a Missionary of Charity who hailed from Africa, and while she spoke English well enough for me to igcse assignment understand her, she wasn’t confident of her ability to communicate in written English. She wanted to thesis write a letter to her spiritual director, expressing her frustration and doubt as to her assignment to english coursework 3 Mother Teresa’s House for the Dying in Vatican City. Essay Introduction! I went there when I was in Rome on a pilgrimage and had time to explore on my own. I was determined to language assignment go there, but I had no idea what I would accomplish by doing so, other than quietly exploring a place where the abandoned dying were tended with love and tenderness in their last days. On Leadership! I wanted to language coursework assignment 3 be close to that, and I wanted to help, somehow, with something. As I was about to leave, the woman at the front desk, who had allowed me to quietly look around, asked if I wouldn’t mind writing a letter for bind, her. I have no idea what her daily life was like, and all I could do was help her write one letter. We also talked a while after the english coursework assignment 3 letter was written. It was, I think, my first and, so far, only experience ghost-writing anything.

There is power in it, and I will always be grateful for that experience. God gave me a way to help, after all, though it was such a little thing. Mmm… what a cool experience, Sarah. This could be the subject for genetics, a short story, I think. A moment of igcse language connection with another person from a different world. Thanks, Joe. #128578; I made it a subject for science is a bane essay, a recent blog post (writeitanyway.com), but I honestly hadn’t thought of it as a subject for a short story — though now you’ve got me thinking about it. I have a question I hope you can answer. I’ve tried researching this to no avail. I’ve been doing ghost writing for almost two years now, through online sites such as oDesk and Elance. In the beginning I just did non-fiction articles and reviews. Recently I’ve branched off into fiction, something that began by my writing fan-fiction, and it turns out igcse english assignment that I’m pretty damn good at it.

Now to my question. If I ghost write a book, mainly for bind london, peanuts, what does the english language coursework assignment client own? The idea was mine, the characters and world are mine. So does the client, who will be publishing this book under a fictitious name, own only this book, or do they own my characters and world as well? Basically, I want to know if I would be allowed to write a sequel under my own name? How does one find answers to such questions? Any insight would be greatly appreciated. I have been a publication designer for a number of years, but recently have thought about genetics essay branching out into micro publishing.

I told a friend I would help her self-publish her book and igcse coursework she asked me to do some editing with it. BOY! I started editing, and I couldn’t understand most of the sentences. She had written the entire book (which is student, a self-help religious book) in two months and hadn’t even reread her own work before passing it off to me as complete. She was determined to have it published by June, but based off the first draft I knew she wouldn’t be able to do it.

So, I’m rewriting her book for her, which gave me the idea to igcse get into ghost writing. Writing has always been a passion of thesis defense mine, and it never occurred to me until now to give ghostwriting a try. hi there – very helpful read for my recent questions about being new to the business. i was wondering if you had advice on igcse coursework assignment 3, the proposal stage. is that also the business legislation ghostwriters job? is that included in the per project fee? should it be charged in a separate way? This was a great help. I’m considering having my story ghostwritten, simply because I’m very inexperienced and want people to enjoy it.

Link for those who want to work from english language coursework home as transcriber or editor: https://gotranscript.com/we-are-hiring-transcribers. My Dad asked me to help him write his memoir, and this is the your london first resource I found on ghostwriting. Thank you – it has been very valuable in my attempt to communicate to him on what will be required if this goes ahead.